LA.11-12.WS.1.1: English-Language Arts
Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.
LA.11-12.WS.1.2: English-Language Arts
Use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes.
LA.11-12.WS.1.3: English-Language Arts
Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples.
LA.11-12.WS.1.4: English-Language Arts
Enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and analogy; the incorporation of visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures); and the issuance of a call for action.
LA.11-12.WS.1.5: English-Language Arts
Use language in natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone.
LA.11-12.WS.1.6: English-Language Arts
Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources).
LA.11-12.WS.1.9: English-Language Arts
Revise text to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre.
LA.11-12.WC.1.1: English-Language Arts
Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage.
LA.11-12.WC.1.2: English-Language Arts
Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization.
LA.11-12.WC.1.3: English-Language Arts
Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements in writing.
Gathers, analyzes, synthesizes, and organizes information from a variety of sources (e.g., interviews, websites, books, field notes).
Uses prewriting stage to generate ideas, determine purpose, analyze audience, select form, research background information, formulate a thesis, and organize text.
Refers to prewriting plan.
Drafts according to audience, purpose, and time.
Drafts by hand and/or electronically.
Assesses draft and/or feedback, decides if multiple drafts are necessary, and justifies decision.
Selects and uses effective revision tools or strategies based on project (e.g., sentence analysis form, revision criteria checklist, "find-and-replace" or "track changes" functions of word processing program).
Rereads work several times and has a different focus for each reading (e.g., first reading - looking for the strength or effectiveness of an argument and organizational structure; second reading - considering appropriateness for audience and purpose; third reading - looking for clarity of persuasive language).
Uses multiple resources to improve text (e.g., writing guide, assignment criteria, Internet grammar guide, peer, thesaurus, dictionary).
Identifies and corrects errors in conventions.
Uses appropriate references and resources (e.g., dictionary, writing/style guide, electronic spelling and grammar check, adult, peer).
Edits with a critical eye, often using a self-initiated checklist or editing guide (e.g., editing symbols, paper submission guidelines).
Proofreads final draft for errors.
Revises at any stage of process.
Edits as needed at any stage.
Presents a manageable thesis while maintaining a consistent focus in an individualized and purposeful manner (e.g., "Obtaining a driver's license should not be tied to grades in school.").
Selects specific details relevant to the topic to extend ideas or develop elaboration (e.g., quotations, data, reasons, multiple examples that build on each other).
Uses personal experiences, observations, and/or research from a variety of sources to support opinions and ideas (e.g., relevant data to support conclusions in math, science, social studies; appropriate researched information to explain or persuade; contrasting points of view to support a hypothesis or argument).
Integrates the elements of character, setting, and plot to create a convincing fictional world.
Writes unified, cohesive paragraphs (e.g., repetition of key terms; parallel structure).
Selects from a variety of opening strategies and composes an engaging introduction (e.g., vivid, detailed description; historical/cultural background; contrasting situation).
Selects from a variety of ending/ conclusion strategies and composes an effective conclusion that is more than a repetition of the introduction (e.g., prediction, anecdote, question).
Uses transitional words and phrases between paragraphs to signal emphasis or show logical relationships among ideas (e.g., in fact ..., consequently ..., as a result ..., on the other hand ...).
Determines effective sequence between and within paragraphs by using transitions to emphasize points in an argument or show logical connections (e.g., inasmuch as ..., possibly ..., therefore ...).
Emphasizes key ideas through appropriate use of text features (e.g., headings, diagrams, graphs, bullets, blank space).
Writes with a clearly defined voice appropriate to audience.
Writes in an individual, knowledgeable, and consistent voice in expository, technical, and persuasive writing.
Selects appropriate point of view for technical writing and/or specific content areas (e.g., third-person point of view for science lab write-ups, first person for field journals, second person for how-to technical manuals).
Selects and uses precise language to persuade or inform.
Writes a variety of sentence structures and lengths to create a cadence appropriate for diverse audiences, purposes, and forms.
Writes a variety of sentence structures (e.g., absolutes to add detail and elaborate: "Fingers gripping the table, the student waited for the results.").
Writes short sentences and phrases in technical writing.
Uses a variety of sentence structures (e.g., line breaks, stanzas, pattern, repetition) to purposefully shape a poem.
Uses resources to correct own spelling.
Uses capitalization rules from previous grades.
Uses resources to check capitalization.
Uses punctuation rules from previous grades.
Uses commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses (e.g., The gym, which was built last year, is used every day.).
Uses brackets around an editorial correction or to set off added words.
Uses the em dash (-) to indicate emphasis or a sudden break, to set off an introductory series, or to show interrupted speech.
Use appropriate punctuation when writing in other languages (e.g., René).
Uses resources to check punctuation.
Applies usage rules from previous grades.
Avoids dangling modifiers (e.g., "After I stood in line for hours, I discovered the tickets were sold out." Incorrect: "After standing in line for hours, the tickets were sold out." The second sentence makes it appear that the tickets were in line.).
Uses who vs. whom correctly.
Uses that vs. which and that vs. who correctly.
Uses either ... or and neither ... nor correctly.
Uses many commonly confused words correctly (e.g., accept vs. except or can vs. may).
Uses active voice except when passive voice is appropriate (e.g., active voice: "They saw it." vs. passive voice: "It was seen by them.").
parallel: The coach told the players they should get plenty of sleep, they should eat well, and they should do some warm-up exercises.
not parallel: The coach told the players they should get plenty of sleep, that they should eat well, and to do some warm up exercises.
Uses resources to check usage.
May use fragments in dialogue as appropriate.
Uses paragraph conventions (e.g., designated by indentation or block format, skipping lines between paragraphs).
Uses textual markers (e.g., page numbers, footnotes, space for pictures).
Cites sources according to prescribed format (e.g., MLA, APA, Turabian).