Important levels of organization for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.
Humans are complex organisms. They require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems interact to perform the life functions.
The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions.
Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment, controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the movement of materials in and out of cells.
Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials (cytoplasm), extraction of energy from nutrients (mitochondria), protein building (ribosomes), waste disposal (cell membrane), storage (vacuole), and information storage (nucleus).
The structures present in some single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms, thus enabling them to perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis.
In asexually reproducing organisms, all the genes come from a single parent. Asexually produced offspring are normally genetically identical to the parent.
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites may infect plants and animals and interfere with normal life functions.
The immune system protects against antigens associated with pathogenic organisms or foreign substances and some cancer cells.
Some white blood cells engulf invaders. Others produce antibodies that attack them or mark them for killing. Some specialized white blood cells will remain, able to fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.
Follows safety rules in the laboratory
Identifies and compares parts of a variety of cells
Compares relative sizes of cells and organelles
Prepares wet-mount slides and uses appropriate staining techniques
Organizes data through the use of data tables and graphs
Analyzes results from observations/expressed data
Formulates an appropriate conclusion or generalization from the results of an experiment