Make informed choices among technology systems, resources and services.
Demonstrate how the stability of a technological system is influenced by all system components, especially those in the feedback loop.
Explain and apply the methods and tools of inventive problem-solving to develop and produce a product or system.
Define simulation in the design process.
Identify the conceptual and technical principles that underpin design processes (e.g., analyze characteristics of technical systems that affect performance and identify principles that resolve design contradictions).
Identify the elements of quality in a product/system (e.g., tolerances, fit, finish, function, form (aesthetics), repeatability, durability, material).
Explain that design problems are seldom presented in a clearly defined form (e.g., problems often involve competing constituencies, undiscovered constraints and unidentified regulations).
Brainstorm solutions to problems using common brainstorming techniques (e.g., select a leader, select a recorder, generate ideas, discuss and add-on to ideas of others and recognize all ideas are welcome).
Demonstrate knowledge of pictorial and multi-view CAD drawings (e.g., orthographic projection, isometric, oblique, perspective using proper techniques).
Recognize that patent, trademark and copyright law protect technological ideas and intellectual property.
Describe how the technological systems of manufacturing, construction, information and communication, energy and power, transportation, medical, and agricultural, and related biotechnologies can be used to solve practical problems.
Describe how the rate of technological development and diffusion is increasing rapidly (e.g., a computer system chip has been adapted for use in toys and greeting cards).
Articulate how inventions and innovations are results of specific goal-directed research (e.g., companies have research and development offices to guide new product development).
Explain how technological development is influenced by many factors, including profit incentive and market economy.
Describe situations in which the selection of resources involves trade-offs between competing values, such as availability, desirability, cost and waste (e.g., use of plastic in manufacturing has many advantages, but may put the environment at risk and deplete natural resources).
Analyze technology transfer scenarios.
Describe how technological innovation often results when ideas, knowledge or skills are shared within a technology.
Define examples of how technological progress is integral to the advancement of science, mathematics and other fields of study.
Solve an inventive problem that contains a technical contradiction (e.g., analyze the technical system, state the technical contradiction and resolve the technical contradiction).
Apply common statistical tools to solve problems (e.g., statistical process control).
Describe quality and how it is evaluated in a product or system.
Select and use simulation in the design process.
Apply the conceptual and technical principles that underpin design processes (e.g., analyze characteristics of technical systems that affect performance and identify principles that resolve design contradictions).
Discuss how requirements of a design, such as criteria, constraints and efficiency, sometimes compete with each other.
Identify criteria and constraints for a design problem and determine how these will affect the design process (e.g., factors such as concept generation, development, production, marketing, fiscal matters, use, and disposability of a product or system).
Understand the role of outsourcing in the engineering process and how effective communication is essential.
Describe several systems archetypes and how they explain the behavior of systems.
Describe how trademarks, patents and copyrights are obtained.
Build a prototype to test a design concept and make actual observations and necessary design adjustments.
Design a prototype using quality control measures (e.g., measuring, checking, testing, feedback).
Evaluate a design using established design principles to collect data on the designs effectiveness, and suggest improvements (e.g., how can bicycles be made safer?).
Explain how established design principles are used to evaluate existing designs, collect data and guide the design process.
Explain how engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity, resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.
Explain how gender-bias, racial-bias and other forms of stereotyping and discrimination can affect communication within an engineering team.
Identify where statistical tools might be used to identify problems in a system.
Use multimedia to communicate a design solution between technological systems.
Explain why technological problems must be researched before they can be solved.
Research previous solutions to a technological problem and redesign an alternative solution.
Select and apply emerging technology in consultation with experts, for research, information analysis, problem-solving and decision-making in content learning.
Categorize inventions in each of the technological systems as one of the five levels of innovation (e.g., apparent or conventional solution, small invention inside paradigm, substantial invention inside technology, invention outside technology, discovery).
Use computers, calculators, instruments and devices to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate to group members (e.g., CAD-computer aided design, software, library resources, the Internet, word processing, CBLs-calculator based labs, laser measuring tools and spreadsheet software).
Articulate and cite examples of how the development of technological knowledge and processes are functions of the setting.
Illustrate ways that the rate of technological development and diffusion is exponential.
Describe, discuss and cite examples of how goal-directed research results in innovation.
Predict how profit incentive and the market economy influence technological development.
Cite examples showing how the failure of system components contributes to the instability of a technological system (e.g., if the fuel pump in an automobile malfunctions, the entire system will not work properly; or if a computer hard drive fails, the computer system will not work properly).
Identify technologies suitable for transfer and defend the rationale for selection.
Evaluate a design completed or created by another group of students using established design principles.
Describe the relationship between engineering disciplines.
Describe how a prototype is a working model used to show how subsystems interact.
Understand that a prototype is a working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
Collaborate with peers and experts to develop a solution to a specific problem.
Demonstrate the importance of teamwork, leadership, integrity, honesty, work habits and organizational skills in the design process.
Describe how to identify conflicts or contradictions in technological systems.
Understand the professional and legal responsibilities associated with being an engineer.
Demonstrate how the development of technological knowledge and processes are functions of the setting.
Predict the impact of the exponential development and diffusion of technology.
Invent a product using goal-directed research.
Plan/construct technological products considering profit incentive and market economy.
Design/construct a model to demonstrate how all components contribute to the stability of a technological system.
Make, support and defend decisions that involve trade-offs between competing values (e.g., use of criteria in making an equipment purchase).
Evaluate the sustainability of a system based on social, economic, political, technological, cultural, historical, moral, aesthetic, biological and physical dimensions.
Debate the positive and negative outcomes of technology transfer (e.g., given a selected region or country, what types of appropriate technology best meet the needs of the people?).
Implement the design process: defining a problem; brainstorming, researching and generating ideas; identifying criteria and specifying constraints; exploring possibilities; selecting an approach, developing a design proposal; making a model or prototype; testing and evaluating the design using specifications; refining the design; creating or making it; communicating processes and results; and implement and electronically document the design process.
Evaluate a design solution using conceptual, physical, 3-D computer and mathematical models at various intervals of the design process in order to check for proper design and to note areas where improvements are needed (e.g., check the design solutions against criteria and constraints).
Apply the separation principles to overcome contradictions in systems (e.g., time, space, combining or dividing systems, physical-chemical changes).
Apply the concepts of system dynamics and systems thinking to the solution of problems.
Evaluate final solutions and communicate observations, processes and results of the entire design process using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual and written means, in addition to three-dimensional models.
Summarize to another person the enjoyment and gratification of designing/creating/producing a completed illustration, drawing, project, product or system.
Predict/project the need for changes in copyright, patent and trademark laws, considering the rapid changes in technology and society.
Apply and evaluate appropriate design processes and techniques to develop or improve products or services in one of the technological systems (manufacturing, construction, information and communication, energy and power, transportation, medical, and agricultural and related biotechnologies).
Solve a problem as a group with students each taking a specific engineering role (e.g., design a light rail hub with students taking the roles of architect, civil engineer, mechanical engineer).
Build a prototype to use as a working model to demonstrate a design's effectiveness to potential customers.
Develop and use a process to evaluate and rate several design solutions to the same problem.
Apply statistical tools to identify a problem in a system (e.g., measures of central tendency, linear regression, symbolic logic, non-decimal number systems).
Explain how the process of engineering design takes into account a number of factors including the interrelationship between systems.
Choose the appropriate media to communicate elements of the design process in each technological system.
Explain why technological problems benefit from a multidisciplinary approach (e.g., the research and development of a new video game could benefit from knowledge of physiology-reaction times and hand-eye coordination, as well as psychology-attention span, color theory and memory).