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The Curriki Open Source Chemistry Text primarily covers the content standards of the California Chemistry Standards. Occassionally, some additional topics are covered to transition from one topic to another, but some content traditionally included in a chemistry textbook has been removed. Furthermore, the textbook is a content reference and not a reference for labs, worksheets, tests, or other supplementary material—many of which are available in each folder.
All tested and starred California Chemistry Standards were used as an outline for this text and, for the most part, the topics are presented in the order of the published standards. Sometime, particularly the unit of nuclear chemistry, some starred standard needed to be introduced earlier than the tested standards and the order of materials is adjusted to make a coherent presentation of material.
Please visit the CA Chemistry Standards to see the specific content covered within this digital collection.
This text is only a beginning to the resources that are available at Curriki. Inside each folder are other resources such as labs, worksheets, and slide presentations. The goal of Curriki is to use the strength of the online education community to build a collection of supplementary material that will support the text in ways that are innovative, comprehensive, and meet the needs of California teachers. We encourage you to be a contributor of resources, to be an editor to tease out the incorrect, incomplete, and confusing passages from the text and the resources, and to develop lesson plans that provide teachers with the tools to make efficient and effective use of the resources.
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Table of Contents
Atomic and Molecular Structure
1a. Element and the the periodic table, atomic number, and atomic mass.
1b. Metals, semimetals, non-metals, and halogens.
1c. Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals; and
Trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.
1d. The number of electrons available for bonding.
1e. The relationship in mass and size of the nucleus and the atom .
1f. *The lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide elements and the synthesis of transuranium elements.
1h.*Historic discoveries by Thomson, Rutherford, Millikan, and Einstein.
1i.* The historical importance of the Bohr model and for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure.
1j.* Spectral lines and Planck’s relationship (E = hv).
2a. Sharing electrons in covalent or metallic bonds and exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.
2b. Common covalent molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2 and large biological molecules.
2c. Salt crystals are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.
2d. Atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random pattern because the intermolecular forces are weak.
2e. Lewis dot structures.
2f. *The shape of simple molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures.
2g.*Electronegativity and ionization energy and bond formation.
2h.*The relationship between Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and volatility or boiling/melting point.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
3a. Balanced chemical equations.
3b. Definition of one mole and carbon 12 atoms.
3c. Definition of one mole equals 6.02 x 10^23 particles.
3d. Molar mass and calculations of mass to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
3e. Calculations of the masses of reactants and products from the mass of one of the reactants or products.
3f.* Calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction.
3g.* Identify reactions that involve oxidation and reduction and how to balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Gases and Their Properties
4a. The random motion of molecules and their collisions create the observable pressure on that surface.
4b. The random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases.
4c. Apply gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
4d. The values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP).
4e. Conversions between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
4f. No temperature exists lower than 0 Kelvin.
4g.*The kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms.
4h.*Calculations using the ideal gas law in the form PV = nRT.
4i.* Application of Dalton’s law of partial pressures and Graham’s law.
1. Atomic and Molecular Structure 2. Atomic Models 3. Chemical Bonds ?Covalent, Metallic or Ionic Bonds • Chemical Bonds in Molecular Atoms • Salt Crystals • How Atoms and Molecules Move in Liquid? • Lewis Dot Structure and Molecular Shape • Electronegativity, Ionization, and Bond Formation • Van Der Waals Forces • Summary
4. Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry ?Descriptions of Chemical Reactions and Writing Chemical Equations • Mole Theory and Molar Mass • Reactant and Product Mass Calculations • Percent Yield Calculations in Chemical Reactions • Oxidation and Reduction • Summary
5. Gases and Their Properties ?Gas Pressure • Gas Diffusion • Gas Laws • Standard Temperature and Pressure • Celsius and Kelvin Scales • Kinetic Theory of Gases • Ideal Gas Law • Dalton's Law • Summary
6. Acids and Bases ?Properties of Acids, Bases and Salt Solutions • Dissociation • pH • Base Definitions • pH and Hydrogen-Ion Calculations • Buffers • Summary
7. Solutions ?Solute and Solvent • Dissolving Process at the Molecular Level • Concentration Calculations • Concentration and Some Physical Properties • Chromatography and Distillation • Summary
8. Energy Exchange during Reactions ?Heat Flow and Molecule (Atomic) Motion • Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions • Freezing, Evaporating and Melting • Problems Involving Heat Flow • Hess' Law • Gibbs Free Energy Equation • Summary * calories * specific heat
9. Reaction Rates ?Rate of Reaction • Concentration, Temperature and Pressure • Catalysts •Activation Energy • Summary
10. Chemical Equilibrium ?LeChatelier's Principle • Equilibrium • Equilibrium Constant Calculation • Summary
11. Organic and Biochemistry ?Polymers • Carbon's Bonding Characteristics • Amino Acids and Proteins • Naming of Linear Hydrocarbons and Isomers • Functional Groups • R-Group Structure • Summary
12. Nuclear Processes ?Nuclear Forces • Energy Release in Nuclear Fusion • Naturally Occurring Isotopes • Three Common Forms of Radioactive Decay • Radiation • Radioactive Substance Calculations • Quarks • Summary