draw a simple contour map of a model landform
design a 3-D landscape model from a contour map
construct and interpret a profile based on an isoline map
use flowcharts to identify rocks and minerals
These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.
Gravity influences the motions of celestial objects. The force of gravity between two objects in the universe depends on their masses and the distance between them.
The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun located at one of the foci.
Earth is orbited by one moon and many artificial satellites.
Earth's coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth's rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.
Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones.
The Foucault pendulum and the Coriolis effect provide evidence of Earth's rotation.
Earth revolves around the Sun with its rotational axis tilted at 23.5 degrees to a line perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, with the North Pole aligned with Polaris.
During Earth's one-year period of revolution, the tilt of its axis results in changes in the angle of incidence of the Sun's rays at a given latitude; these changes cause variation in the heating of the surface. This produces seasonal variation in weather.
Seasonal changes in the apparent positions of constellations provide evidence of Earth's revolution.
The Sun's apparent path through the sky varies with latitude and season.
Approximately 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attraction of the moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.
Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat.
The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth's interior results in the formation of regions of different densities. These density differences result in motion.
Weather patterns become evident when weather variables are observed, measured, and recorded. These variables include air temperature, air pressure, moisture (relative humidity and dewpoint), precipitation (rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.), wind speed and direction, and cloud cover.
Weather variables are measured using instruments such as thermometers, barometers, psychrometers, precipitation gauges, anemometers, and wind vanes.
temperature and humidity affect air pressure and probability of precipitation
air pressure gradient controls wind velocity
Air temperature, dewpoint, cloud formation, and precipitation are affected by the expansion and contraction of air due to vertical atmospheric movement.
Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models.
Atmospheric moisture, temperature and pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air masses and frontal boundaries; and the movement of cyclonic systems and associated tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes occur in observable patterns. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and severe weather.
Analysis of seismic waves allows the determination of the location of earthquake epicenters, and the measurement of earthquake magnitude; this analysis leads to the inference that Earth's interior is composed of layers that differ in composition and states of matter.
The outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives convective circulation in the mantle that moves the lithospheric plates comprising Earth's surface.
These plate boundaries are the sites of most earthquakes, volcanoes, and young mountain ranges.
Compared to continental crust, ocean crust is thinner and denser. New ocean crust continues to form at mid-ocean ridges.
Earthquakes and volcanoes present geologic hazards to humans. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
Many processes of the rock cycle are consequences of plate dynamics. These include the production of magma (and subsequent igneous rock formation and contact metamorphism) at both subduction and rifting regions, regional metamorphism within subduction zones, and the creation of major depositional basins through down-warping of the crust.
Many of Earth's surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones/island arcs, mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic), hot spots, and the magnetic and age patterns in surface bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction.
Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of organic evolution.
Landforms are the result of the interaction of tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.
Topographic maps represent landforms through the use of contour lines that are isolines connecting points of equal elevation. Gradients and profiles can be determined from changes in elevation over a given distance.
Climate variations, structure, and characteristics of bedrock influence the development of landscape features including mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, ridges, escarpments, and stream drainage patterns.
Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks at or near Earth's surface. Soils are the result of weathering and biological activity over long periods of time.
Natural agents of erosion, generally driven by gravity, remove, transport, and deposit weathered rock particles. Each agent of erosion produces distinctive changes in the material that it transports and creates characteristic surface features and landscapes. In certain erosional situations, loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
Streams (running water): Gradient, discharge, and channel shape influence a stream's velocity and the erosion and deposition of sediments. Sediments transported by streams tend to become rounded as a result of abrasion. Stream features include V-shaped valleys, deltas, flood plains, and meanders. A watershed is the area drained by a stream and its tributaries.
Glaciers (moving ice): Glacial erosional processes include the formation of U-shaped valleys, parallel scratches, and grooves in bedrock. Glacial features include moraines, drumlins, kettle lakes, finger lakes, and outwash plains.
Wave Action: Erosion and deposition cause changes in shoreline features, including beaches, sandbars, and barrier islands. Wave action rounds sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves approaching a shoreline move sand parallel to the shore within the zone of breaking waves.
Wind: Erosion of sediments by wind is most common in arid climates and along shorelines. Wind-generated features include dunes and sand-blasted bedrock.
Mass Movement: Earth materials move downslope under the influence of gravity.
Patterns of deposition result from a loss of energy within the transporting system and are influenced by the size, shape, and density of the transported particles. Sediment deposits may be sorted or unsorted.
Sediments of inorganic and organic origin often accumulate in depositional environments. Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are compacted and/or cemented after burial or as the result of chemical precipitation from seawater.
the intensity caused by differences in atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season
characteristics of the materials absorbing the energy such as color, texture, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat
duration, which varies with seasons and latitude.
Heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.
A location's climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.
natural events such as El Nino and volcanic eruptions
human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.