use eccentricity, rate, gradient, standard error of measurement, and density in context
determine the relationships among: velocity, slope, sediment size, channel shape, and volume of a stream
understand the relationships among: the planets' distance from the Sun, gravitational force, period of revolution, and speed of revolution
in a field, use isolines to determine a source of pollution
show how our observation of celestial motions supports the idea of stars moving around a stationary Earth (the geocentric model), but further investigation has led scientists to understand that most of these changes are a result of Earth's motion around the Sun (the heliocentric model)
test sediment properties and the rate of deposition
determine the changing length of a shadow based on the motion of the Sun
after experimenting with conduction of heat (using calorimeters and aluminum bars), make recommendations to create a more efficient system of heat transfer
determine patterns of topography and drainage around your school and design solutions to effectively deal with runoff
analyze weather maps to predict future weather events
discuss how early warning systems can protect society and the environment from natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and volcanoes
graph and interpret the nature of cyclic change such as sunspots, tides, and atmospheric carbon dioxide
debate the effect of human activities as they relate to quality of life on Earth systems (global warming, land use, preservation of natural resources, pollution)
analyze the issues related to local energy needs and develop a viable energy generation plan for the community
investigate two similar fossils to determine if they represent a developmental change over time
investigate the political, economic, and environmental impact of global distribution and use of mineral resources and fossil fuels
consider environmental and social implications of various solutions to an environmental Earth resources problem
collect, collate, and process data concerning potential natural disasters (tornadoes, thunderstorms, blizzards, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts, etc.) in an area and develop an emergency action plan
using a topographic map, determine the safest and most efficient route for rescue purposes
Weather patterns become evident when weather variables are observed, measured, and recorded. These variables include air temperature, air pressure, moisture (relative humidity and dewpoint), precipitation (rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.), wind speed and direction, and cloud cover.
Weather variables are measured using instruments such as thermometers, barometers, psychrometers, precipitation gauges, anemometers, and wind vanes.
Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models.
Atmospheric moisture, temperature and pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air masses and frontal boundaries; and the movement of cyclonic systems and associated tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes occur in observable patterns. Loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and severe weather.
Many processes of the rock cycle are consequences of plate dynamics. These include the production of magma (and subsequent igneous rock formation and contact metamorphism) at both subduction and rifting regions, regional metamorphism within subduction zones, and the creation of major depositional basins through down-warping of the crust.
Many of Earth's surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones/island arcs, mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic), hot spots, and the magnetic and age patterns in surface bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction.
Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of organic evolution.
Landforms are the result of the interaction of tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.