Energy exists in various forms: heat, electric, sound, chemical, mechanical, light.
Energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Some materials transfer energy better than others (heat and electricity).
Energy and matter interact: water is evaporated by the Sun s heat; a bulb is lighted by means of electrical current; a musical instrument is played to produce sound; dark colors may absorb light, light colors may reflect light.
Electricity travels in a closed circuit.
chemical to electrical, light, and heat: battery and bulb
electrical to sound (e.g. , doorbell buzzer)
mechanical to sound (e.g. , musical instruments, clapping)
light to electrical (e.g. , solar-powered calculator)
Substances have characteristic properties. Some of these properties include color, odor, phase at room temperature, density, solubility, heat and electrical conductivity, hardness, and boiling and freezing points.
Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical. Energy is transformed in many ways.
Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy.
Without touching them, material that has been electrically charged attracts uncharged material, and may either attract or repel other charged material.
Moving electric charges produce magnetic fields. The relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field may produce a potential difference in the conductor.
All materials display a range of conductivity. At constant temperature, common metallic conductors obey Ohm's Law.
The factors affecting resistance in a conductor are length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and resistivity.
A circuit is a closed path in which a current can exist. (Note: Use conventional current.)
Circuit components may be connected in series or in parallel. Schematic dia-grams are used to represent circuits and circuit elements.
Electrical power and energy can be determined for electric circuits.