observe and describe interactions among components of simple systems
identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g. , a plant, a transportation system, human beings)
analyze, construct, and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing
discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing
use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world
observe that things in nature and things that people make have very different sizes, weights, and ages
recognize that almost anything has limits on how big or small it can be
observe that things change in some ways and stay the same in some ways
recognize that things can change in different ways such as size, weight, color, and movement. Some small changes can be detected by taking measurements.
use simple instruments to measure such quantities as distance, size, and weight and look for patterns in the data
analyze data by making tables and graphs and looking for patterns of change
Earth spinning around once every 24 hours (rotation), resulting in day and night
Earth moving in a path around the Sun (revolution), resulting in one Earth year
the length of daylight and darkness varying with the seasons
weather changing from day to day and through the seasons
the appearance of the Moon changing as it moves in a path around Earth to complete a single cycle
second, minute, hour
The Sun and other stars appear to move in a recognizable pattern both daily and seasonally.
Energy exists in various forms: heat, electric, sound, chemical, mechanical, light.
Energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Some materials transfer energy better than others (heat and electricity).
Energy and matter interact: water is evaporated by the Sun s heat; a bulb is lighted by means of electrical current; a musical instrument is played to produce sound; dark colors may absorb light, light colors may reflect light.
Electricity travels in a closed circuit.
Heat can be released in many ways, for example, by burning, rubbing (friction) , or combining one substance with another.
Interactions with forms of energy can be either helpful or harmful.
animals convert food to heat and motion
the Sun's energy warms the air and water
chemical to electrical, light, and heat: battery and bulb
electrical to sound (e.g. , doorbell buzzer)
mechanical to sound (e.g. , musical instruments, clapping)
light to electrical (e.g. , solar-powered calculator)
Animals need air, water, and food in order to live and thrive.
Plants require air, water, nutrients, and light in order to live and thrive.
Nonliving things do not live and thrive.
Nonliving things can be human-created or naturally occurring.
Living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, eliminate waste, and die.
Some traits of living things have been inherited (e.g., color of flowers and number of limbs of animals).
Some characteristics result from an individual s interactions with the environment and cannot be inherited by the next generation (e.g., having scars; riding a bicycle).
Plants and animals closely resemble their parents and other individuals in their species.
Plants and animals can transfer specific traits to their offspring when they reproduce.