develop an appreciation of and respect for all learning environments (classroom, laboratory, field, etc.)
manipulate materials thr ough teacher dir ection and fr ee discovery
use information systems appr opriately
select appropriate standard and nonstandard measurement tools for measurement activities
estimate, find, and communicate measurements, using standard and nonstandard units
use and record appropriate units for measured or calculated values
order and sequence objects and/or events
classify objects according to an established scheme
generate a scheme for classification
utilize senses optimally for making observations
observe, analyze, and report observations of objects and events
observe, identify, and communicate patterns
observe, identify, and communicate cause-and-effect relationships
generate appropriate questions (teacher and student based) in response to observations, events, and other experiences
observe, collect, organize, and appropriately record data, then accurately interpret results
make predictions based on prior experiences and/or information
compare and contrast organisms/objects/events in the living and physical environments
identify and control variables/factors
plan, design, and implement a short-term and long-term investigation based on a student- or teacher-posed problem
communicate procedures and conclusions through oral and written presentations
Use appropriate scientific tools, such as metric rulers, spring scale, pan balance, graph paper, thermometers [Fahrenheit and Celsius], graduated cylinder to solve problems about the natural world
Observe and discuss objects and events and record observations
Articulate appropriate questions based on observations
Identify similarities and differences between explanations received from others or in print and personal observations or understandings
Clearly express a tentative explanation or description which can be tested
Indicate materials to be used and steps to follow to conduct the investigation and describe how data will be recorded (journal, dates and times, etc.)
Explain the steps of a plan to others, actively listening to their suggestions for possible modification of the plan, seeking clarification and understand- ing of the suggestions and modifying the plan where appropriate
Use appropriate "inquiry and process skills" to collect data
Record observations accurately and concisely
Accurately transfer data from a science journal or notes to appropriate graphic organizer
State, orally and in writing, any inferences or generalizations indicated by the data collected
Explain their findings to others, and actively listen to suggestions for possible interpretations and ideas
State, orally and in writing, any inferences or generalizations indicated by the data, with appropriate modifications of their original prediction/ explanation
State, orally and in writing, any new questions that arise from their investigation
Identify a simple/ common object which might be improved and state the purpose of the improvement
Identify features of an object that help or hinder the performance of the object
Suggest ways the object can be made differently, fixed, or improved within given constraints
Identify appropriate questions to ask about the design of an object
Identify the appropriate resources to use to find out about the design of an object
Describe prior designs of the object
SCI.K-4.1.T1 3a: Science
List possible solutions, applying age-appropriate math and science skills
Develop and apply criteria to evaluate possible solutions
Select a solution consistent with given constraints and explain why it was chosen
Create a grade-appropriate graphic or plan listing all materials needed, showing sizes of parts, indicating how things will fit together, and detailing steps for assembly
Build a model of the object, modifying the plan as necessary
Determine a way to test the finished solution or model
Perform the test and record the results, numerically and/ or graphically
Analyze results and suggest how to improve the solution or model, using oral, graphic, or written formats
use computer technology, traditional paper-based resources, and interpersonal discussions to learn, do, and share science in the classroom
select appropriate hardware and software that aids in word processing, creating databases, telecommunications, graphing, data display, and other tasks
use information technology to link the classroom to world events
use a variety of media to access scientific information
consult several sources of information and points of view before drawing conclusions
identify and report sources in oral and written communications
observe and describe interactions among components of simple systems
identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g. , a plant, a transportation system, human beings)
analyze, construct, and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing
discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing
use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world
observe that things in nature and things that people make have very different sizes, weights, and ages
recognize that almost anything has limits on how big or small it can be
Earth spinning around once every 24 hours (rotation), resulting in day and night
Earth moving in a path around the Sun (revolution), resulting in one Earth year
the length of daylight and darkness varying with the seasons
weather changing from day to day and through the seasons
the appearance of the Moon changing as it moves in a path around Earth to complete a single cycle
second, minute, hour
The Sun and other stars appear to move in a recognizable pattern both daily and seasonally.
Matter takes up space and has mass. Two objects cannot occupy the same place at the same time.
Matter has properties (color, hardness, odor, sound, taste, etc.) that can be observed through the senses.
Objects have properties that can be observed, described, and/ or measured: length, width, volume, size, shape, mass or weight, temperature, texture, flexibility, reflective- ness of light.
Measurements can be made with standard metric units and nonstandard units. (Note: Exceptions to the metric system usage are found in meteorology.)
The material(s) an object is made up of determine some specific properties of the object (sink/ float, conductivity, magnetism). Properties can be observed or measured with tools such as hand lenses, metric rulers, thermometers, balances, magnets, circuit testers, and graduated cylinders.
Objects and/ or materials can be sorted or classified according to their properties.
temperature -hot or cold
lighting -shadows, color
moisture -wet or dry
solids have a definite shape and volume
liquids do not have a definite shape but have a definite volume
gases do not hold their shape or volume
Temperature can affect the state of matter of a substance.
Changes in the properties or materials of objects can be observed and described.
Energy exists in various forms: heat, electric, sound, chemical, mechanical, light.
Energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Some materials transfer energy better than others (heat and electricity).
Energy and matter interact: water is evaporated by the Sun s heat; a bulb is lighted by means of electrical current; a musical instrument is played to produce sound; dark colors may absorb light, light colors may reflect light.
Electricity travels in a closed circuit.
Heat can be released in many ways, for example, by burning, rubbing (friction) , or combining one substance with another.
Interactions with forms of energy can be either helpful or harmful.
animals convert food to heat and motion
the Sun's energy warms the air and water
chemical to electrical, light, and heat: battery and bulb
electrical to sound (e.g. , doorbell buzzer)
mechanical to sound (e.g. , musical instruments, clapping)
light to electrical (e.g. , solar-powered calculator)
The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background (e.g., on top of, next to, over, under, etc.).
The position or direction of motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling.
The force of gravity pulls objects toward the center of Earth.
The amount of change in the motion of an object is affected by friction.
Magnetism is a force that may attract or repel certain materials.
Mechanical energy may cause change in motion through the application of force and through the use of simple machines such as pulleys, levers, and inclined planes.
Animals need air, water, and food in order to live and thrive.
Plants require air, water, nutrients, and light in order to live and thrive.
Nonliving things do not live and thrive.
Nonliving things can be human-created or naturally occurring.
Living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, eliminate waste, and die.
Some traits of living things have been inherited (e.g., color of flowers and number of limbs of animals).
Some characteristics result from an individual s interactions with the environment and cannot be inherited by the next generation (e.g., having scars; riding a bicycle).
Plants and animals closely resemble their parents and other individuals in their species.
Plants and animals can transfer specific traits to their offspring when they reproduce.
Green plants are producers because they provide the basic food supply for them- selves and animals.
All animals depend on plants. Some animals (predators) eat other animals (prey).
Animals that eat plants for food may in turn become food for other animals. This sequence is called a food chain.
Decomposers are living things that play a vital role in recycling nutrients.
An organism s pattern of behavior is related to the nature of that organism s environment, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and other resources, and the physical characteristics of the environment.
When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.
Plants manufacture food by utilizing air, water, and energy from the Sun.
The Sun s energy is transferred on Earth from plants to animals through the food chain.
Heat energy from the Sun powers the water cycle (see Physical Science Key Idea 2).