Earth spinning around once every 24 hours (rotation), resulting in day and night
Earth moving in a path around the Sun (revolution), resulting in one Earth year
the length of daylight and darkness varying with the seasons
weather changing from day to day and through the seasons
the appearance of the Moon changing as it moves in a path around Earth to complete a single cycle
The Sun and other stars appear to move in a recognizable pattern both daily and seasonally.
Energy exists in various forms: heat, electric, sound, chemical, mechanical, light.
Energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Some materials transfer energy better than others (heat and electricity).
Energy and matter interact: water is evaporated by the Sun s heat; a bulb is lighted by means of electrical current; a musical instrument is played to produce sound; dark colors may absorb light, light colors may reflect light.
Electricity travels in a closed circuit.
Heat can be released in many ways, for example, by burning, rubbing (friction) , or combining one substance with another.
Interactions with forms of energy can be either helpful or harmful.
The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background (e.g., on top of, next to, over, under, etc.).
The position or direction of motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling.
The force of gravity pulls objects toward the center of Earth.
The amount of change in the motion of an object is affected by friction.
Magnetism is a force that may attract or repel certain materials.
Mechanical energy may cause change in motion through the application of force and through the use of simple machines such as pulleys, levers, and inclined planes.
Animals need air, water, and food in order to live and thrive.
Plants require air, water, nutrients, and light in order to live and thrive.
Nonliving things do not live and thrive.
Nonliving things can be human-created or naturally occurring.
Living things grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, eliminate waste, and die.
Green plants are producers because they provide the basic food supply for them- selves and animals.
All animals depend on plants. Some animals (predators) eat other animals (prey).
Animals that eat plants for food may in turn become food for other animals. This sequence is called a food chain.
Decomposers are living things that play a vital role in recycling nutrients.
An organism s pattern of behavior is related to the nature of that organism s environment, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and other resources, and the physical characteristics of the environment.
When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.
Plants manufacture food by utilizing air, water, and energy from the Sun.
The Sun s energy is transferred on Earth from plants to animals through the food chain.
Heat energy from the Sun powers the water cycle (see Physical Science Key Idea 2).