use theories and/ or models to represent and explain observations
use theories and/ or principles to make predictions about natural phenomena
develop models to explain observations
evaluate the merits of various scientific theories and indicate why one theory was accepted over another
design and/ or carry out experiments, using scientific methodology to test proposed calculations
use library investigations, retrieved information, and literature reviews to improve the experimental design of an experiment
develop research proposals in the form of "if X is true and a particular test Y is done, then prediction Z will occur"
determine safety procedures to accompany a research plan
organize observations in a data table, analyze the data for trends or patterns, and interpret the trends or patterns, using scientific concepts
Apply statistical analysis techniques when appropriate to test if chance alone explains the result.
evaluate experimental methodology for inherent sources of error and analyze the possible effect on the result
compare the experimental result to the expected result; calculate the percent error as appropriate
Using results of the test and through public discussion, revise the explanation and contemplate additional research.
Develop a written report for public scrutiny that describes the proposed explanation, including a literature review, the research carried out, its results, and suggestions for further research.
Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from a body of higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules.
Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. Temperature is not a form of energy.
The concepts of kinetic and potential energy can be used to explain physical processes that include: fusion (melting), solidification (freezing), vaporization (boiling, evaporation), condensation, sublimation, and deposition.