explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;
express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition.
describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration;
analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions using equations, including projectile and circular examples;
calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects;
develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and
identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.
describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers;
describe and calculate how the magnitude of the electrical force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between them;
characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electrical properties;
describe evidence for and effects of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.
investigate and calculate quantities using the work-energy theorem in various situations;
calculate the mechanical energy of, power generated within, impulse applied to, and momentum of a physical system;
demonstrate and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in one dimension;
describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;
contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and
analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.
examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;
investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;
compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;
investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect;
describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens; and
describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial applications.