Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field.
Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.
Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).
Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
Based on empirical evidence, explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.
Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
Distinguish between scientific explanations that are regarded as current scientific consensus and the emerging questions that active researchers investigate.
Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.
Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.
Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information.
Evaluate scientific explanations in a peer review process or discussion format.
Evaluate the future career and occupational prospects of science fields.
Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.
Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that lead to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.
Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.
Describe how glaciers have affected the Michigan landscape and how the resulting landforms impact our state economy. (prerequisite)
Explain what happens to the lithosphere when an ice sheet is removed. (prerequisite)
Explain the formation of the Great Lakes. (prerequisite)
Explain the natural mechanism of the greenhouse effect, including comparisons of the major greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone).
Describe natural mechanisms that could result in significant changes in climate (e.g., major volcanic eruptions, changes in sunlight received by the earth, and meteorite impacts).
Analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature over the past 150 years.
Based on evidence of observable changes in recent history and climate change models, explain the consequences of warmer oceans (including the results of increased evaporation, shoreline and estuarine impacts, oceanic algae growth, and coral bleaching) and changing climatic zones (including the adaptive capacity of the biosphere).
Based on evidence from historical climate research (e.g. fossils, varves, ice core data) and climate change models, explain how the current melting of polar ice caps can impact the climatic system.
Describe geologic evidence that implies climates were significantly colder at times in the geologic record (e.g., geomorphology, striations, and fossils).
Compare and contrast the heat-trapping mechanisms of the major greenhouse gases resulting from emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons) as well as their abundance and heat- trapping capacity.
Use oxygen isotope data to estimate paleotemperature. (recommended)
Explain the causes of short-term climate changes such as catastrophic volcanic eruptions and impact of solar system objects. (recommended)
Predict the global temperature increase by 2100, given data on the annual trends of CO2 concentration increase. (recommended)