Explain the political, societal, economic and environmental impact of chemical products and technologies.
Use significant figures and an understanding of accuracy and precision in scientific measurements to determine and express the uncertainty of a result.
Explain the relationship of an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number and electron configuration.
Identify and compare trends on the periodic table, including reactivity and relative sizes of atoms and ions; use the trends to explain the properties of subgroups, including metals, non-metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases.
Explain how elements combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
Compare and contrast the structure, properties and uses of organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, sugars, fats and proteins.
Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that contain polyatomic ions.
Determine the molar mass of a compound from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses; convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.
Describe the dynamic process by which solutes dissolve in solvents, and calculate concentrations, including percent concentration, molarity and parts per million.
Explain the role of solubility of solids, liquids and gases in natural and designed systems.
Classify chemical reactions as double replacement, single replacement, synthesis, decomposition or combustion.
Use solubility and activity of ions to determine whether a double replacement or single replacement reaction will occur.
Relate the properties of acids and bases to the ions they contain and predict the products of an acid-base reaction.
Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition.
Use the law of conservation of mass to describe and calculate relationships in a chemical reaction, including molarity, mole/mass relationships, mass/volume relations, limiting reactants and percent yield.
Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature, pressure, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area and catalyst.
Recognize that some chemical reactions are reversible and that not all chemical reactions go to completion.
Use kinetic molecular theory to explain how changes in energy content affect the state of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the behavior of gases and the relationship among temperature, pressure, volume and the number of particles.