Design, conduct, and analyze conclusions from an investigation that includes using experimental controls.
Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations and make inferences based on observations.
Tools (e.g., English rulers [to the nearest one-sixteenth of an inch], metric rulers [to the nearest millimeter], thermometers, scales, hand lenses, microscopes, balances, clocks, calculators, anemometers, rain gauges, barometers, hygrometers, telescopes, compasses, spring scales, pH indicators, stopwatches, graduated cylinders, medicine droppers)
Types of data (e.g., linear measures, mass, volume, temperature, area, perimeter)
Resources (e.g., Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.)
Analyze evidence that is used to form explanations and draw conclusions.
Develop a logical argument defending conclusions of an experimental method.
Develop a logical argument to explain why perfectly designed solutions do not exist.
Justify a scientist's need to revise conclusions after encountering new experimental evidence that does not match existing explanations.
Analyze different ideas and recognize the skepticism of others as part of the scientific process in considering alternative conclusions.