Design solutions to real-world problems of general social interest related to home, school, or community using scientific experimentation to inform the solution and applying mathematical concepts and reasoning to assist in developing a solution.
Describe and explain phenomena by designing and conducting investigations involving systematic observations, accurate measurements, and the identification and control of variables; by inquiring into relevant mathematical ideas; and by using mathematical and technological tools and procedures to assist in the investigation.
Working Effectively: Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group.
Gathering and Processing Information: Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.
Generating and Analyzing Ideas: Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.
Common Themes: Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.
Realizing Ideas: Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result.
Presenting Results: Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.
Scientific explanations are built by combining evidence that can be observed with what people already know about the world.
Learning about the historical development of scientific concepts or about individuals who have contributed to scientific knowledge provides a better understanding of scientific inquiry and the relationship between science and society.
Science provides knowledge, but values are also essential to making effective and ethical decisions about the application of scientific knowledge.
Inquiry involves asking questions and locating, interpreting, and processing information from a variety of sources.
Inquiry involves making judgments about the reliability of the source and relevance of information.
Scientific explanations are accepted when they are consistent with experimental and observational evidence and when they lead to accurate predictions.
All scientific explanations are tentative and subject to change or improvement. Each new bit of evidence can create more questions than it answers. This leads to increasingly better understanding of how things work in the living world.
Well-accepted theories are ones that are supported by different kinds of scientific investigations often involving the contributions of individuals from different disciplines.
Devise ways of making observations to test proposed explanations.
Development of a research plan involves researching background information and understanding the major concepts in the area being investigated. Recommendations for methodologies, use of technologies, proper equipment, and safety precautions should also be included.
Hypotheses are predictions based upon both research and observation.
Hypotheses are widely used in science for determining what data to collect and as a guide for interpreting the data.
Development of a research plan for testing a hypothesis requires planning to avoid bias (e.g., repeated trials, large sample size, and objective data-collection techniques).
Carry out a research plan for testing explanations, including selecting and developing techniques, acquiring and building apparatus, and recording observations as necessary.
Interpretation of data leads to development of additional hypotheses, the formulation of generalizations, or explanations of natural phenomena.
Apply statistical analysis techniques when appropriate to test if chance alone explains the results.
Assess correspondence between the predicted result contained in the hypothesis and actual result, and reach a conclusion as to whether the explanation on which the prediction was based is supported.
Hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, because they may lead to further investigation.
Claims should be questioned if the data are based on samples that are very small, biased, or inadequately controlled or if the conclusions are based on the faulty, incomplete, or misleading use of numbers.
Claims should be questioned if fact and opinion are intermingled, if adequate evidence is not cited, or if the conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given.
One assumption of science is that other individuals could arrive at the same explanation if they had access to similar evidence. Scientists make the results of their investigations public; they should describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations.
Scientists use peer review to evaluate the results of scientific investigations and the explanations proposed by other scientists. They analyze the experimental procedures, examine the evidence, identify faulty reasoning, point out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggest alternative explanations for the same observations.
Follows safety rules in the laboratory
Designs and carries out a controlled, scientific experiment based on biological processes
States an appropriate hypothesis
Differentiates between independent and dependent variables
Identifies the control group and/or controlled variables
Collects, organizes, and analyzes data, using a computer and/or other laboratory equipment
Organizes data through the use of data tables and graphs
Analyzes results from observations/expressed data
Formulates an appropriate conclusion or generalization from the results of an experiment
Recognizes assumptions and limitations of the experiment