Know and explain that physical properties can be used to differentiate among pure substances, solutions, and heterogeneous mixtures.
Understand that the Periodic Table is a listing of elements arranged by increasing atomic number, and use it to predict whether a selected atom would gain, lose, or share electrons as it interacts with other selected atoms.
Understand and explain that whenever the amount of energy in one place or form diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount.
Know and explain that transformations of energy usually transform some energy into the form of heat, which dissipates by radiation or conduction into cooler surroundings.
Recognize and explain that waves are described by their velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude.
Realize and explain that electromagnetic forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between atoms.
Understand and explain that in materials, there are usually equal proportions of positive and negative charges, making the materials as a whole electrically neutral. However, also know that a very small excess or deficit of negative charges will produce noticeable electric forces.
Describe how the nature of the interactions between atoms and molecules are reflected in physical and chemical properties of matter. Distinguish between different forms of matter. Compare and contrast chemical and physical changes and be able to predict when a chemical or physical change will occur.
Describe the numbers and types of subatomic particulates and how they contribute to the structure of an atom. Describe the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table and use it to identify repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties of the atoms within it. Explain how these properties reflect the electronic structure of the atoms that make up the elements. Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain the concept of half-life for an isotope.
understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light;
calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light;