Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.
Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.
Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.
Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random pattern relative to one another because the intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in a solid form.
Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.
Students know how to predict the shape of simple molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures.
Students know how electronegativity and ionization energy relate to bond formation.
Students know how to identify solids and liquids held together by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and relate these forces to volatility and boiling/melting point temperatures.
write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases;
construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;
describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply the theory to explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and