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Jessika Richter
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The short and sweet: I have been a passionate teacher since 2001. &nbsp;I first worked with the National Park Service in Washington (state), then moved to Australia where I completed my DipEd at the University of Melbourne and then taught at Hailebury  ...

Fun with Fractions

Fun with Fractions: Teacher’s Guide

Unit Overview:

This unit will introduce the concept of fractions with activities and lessons that cater to visual, auditory, and tactile learning styles. Students will create fractions with a variety of manipulatives, solve problems with fractions, play games with fractions, and explore fractions in their everyday lives. The unit will also integrate language arts, as students write fraction stories and read literature related to fractions.

Unit Objectives:

Students will be able to:

·          Explain the concept of whole and 1/2.

·          Demonstrate whole and 1/2.

·          Identify instances in their everyday lives that use fractions.

·          Show fluency with 1/2.

·          Identify numerator and denominator.

·          Identify and write fractions 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10, 2/4, 2/6, 2/8, 3/4, 3/6, and 3/8.

·          Compare fractions and explain why fractions are smaller or bigger than one another.

·          Understand that bigger fractions have smaller denominators.

·          Understand that two different fractions can equal one another.

·          Identify written fractions.

·          Apply fractions in a setting outside of mathematics.

·          Write a complete story about fractions.

Unit Calendar:

Week 1

 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Lesson #1: Introduce Whole and One-Half     35 minutes Lesson #2: More About One-Half.       20 minutes Lesson #3: Practice with One-Half     25 minutes Lesson #4: Introduce Numerator and Denominator   40 minutes

Week 2

 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Lesson #5: Going Beyond One-Half     40 minutes Lesson #6: Making Fractions I     40 minutes Lesson #7: Making Fractions II     30 minutes Lesson #8: Comparing Fractions I   35 minutes

Week 3

 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Lesson #9: Comparing Fractions II   30 minutes Lesson #10: Fraction Bingo     30 minutes Lesson #11: Fraction Matching     30 minutes Lesson #12: Writing a Fraction Story I   30 minutes Lesson #13: Writing a Fraction Story II   30 minutes

Best Practices:

·          Organize Materials and Give Clear Instructions

Ø       Use bins to have group sets of materials ready to hand out to students. Each bin should contain everything a group needs to successfully complete an activity or game.

Ø       Give clear instructions for each and every task. No task is too small for instructions.

·          Assign Jobs to Group Members

Ø       Give each group member a specific task. For example, tell partners, “You are number one. You are number two. Number one will do this and number two will do this.”

·          Allow Adequate Time for Exploration

Ø       Put materials in front of students and give them three to five minutes to explore before beginning the experiment.

Ø       Ask guiding questions such as: “What do you notice about the materials? How are they alike? How are they different?”

Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards

NCTM Number and Operations Standard:

·          Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.

·          Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.

NCTM Data and Analysis and Probability Standard:

·          Pose questions and gather data about themselves and their surroundings.

NCTM Process Standard:

·          Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

·          Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

·          Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.

·          Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

Lesson #1: Introduce Whole and One-Half

Introduction:
Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the classroom; (3) Photocopy Pizza Cut-Out Sheets (1 per student).
Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:
Students will be able to:

• Explain the concept of 1/2.
• Explain the concept of whole.
• Demonstrate 1/2.
Materials:
Problem of the Day (see attachment), Pizza Cut-Out Sheet (see attachment), Vocabulary Cards (see attachment), crayons, scissors, overhead projector
Procedures:
Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Ask students: How did Isaiah and Brandon solve their problem? Possible answers: they shared; they cut the pizza into pieces. Make sure students understand the pieces were equal.
2. Explain: Isaiah started out with a whole pizza. Display vocabulary card whole on the board. Explain whole.
3. Next, explain: He divided his pizza into parts. Display vocabulary card part on the board. Explain part.
4. Next display vocabulary card fraction on the board. Explain: A fraction is when you have parts of a whole. Isaiah ate part of the pizza so he ate a fraction of it. Brandon ate part of the pizza so he also ate a fraction of the pizza. Does anybody know what fraction of the pizza he ate? Elicit response onehalf. Display vocabulary card 1/2 on the board.
5. Ask students: How many parts were there total? Explain: That is how we get the two for the bottom of the fraction one-half. Then ask: How many parts did Isaiah eat? Explain: That is how we get the one for top of the fraction one-half.
6. Tell students: Now you are each going to get your own pizza to share. Distribute Pizza Cut-Out Sheet. Students should color their pizza, cut it out, cut it into two equal parts, and label each part one-half.
Modifications: For students with special needs, provide one-on-one assistance with dividing pizza in half. Student can give teacher oral directions and teacher can do cutting and writing if necessary.
Assessment:
Teacher should monitor independent student work and provide one-on-one assistance as necessary.
Benchmark or Standards:
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:
 Lesson1Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #2: More About One-Half

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the classroom.

Group Size: Whole Class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Identify instances in their everyday lives that use fractions.
• Show fluency with one-half by dividing whole objects and sets of objects into one-half.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), chart paper, markers, overhead projector, classroom objects such as crayons, glue sticks, and pencils

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Write the number "1/2" on the board. Ask students: Do you remember what this is called?
2. Tell Students: Remember, yesterday we divided a pizza into half. A pizza is just one thing. Today we divided pieces of candy into half. The candy was a group of objects. Fractions can be for one thing, like the pizza, or for a group of things, like the candy.
3. Tell Students: Let’s continue practicing how to make one-half. Hold up a group of six glue sticks and tell students: I have six glue sticks. I want to give half to Student A and half to Student B. Call two students to the front of the room. Have them help you divide the objects into half.
4. Ask students: How many glue sticks are in each half? How do we know they are each half? Elicit response: Both students have three glue sticks.
5. Hold up a group of eight crayons. Then hold up a group of ten pencils. Follow the same procedure as above for each group of objects, ensuring that students understand each group must be equal to make half.
6. Tell students: Now we understand that we can make one-half from a single object or from a group of objects. Let’s think about fractions that we see everyday. Display chart paper and label the top “Fractions Around Us”. Start the list with pizza. Then ask students to come up with other objects they can divide into fractions.
7. Keep the list on display in the classroom for the remainder of the fraction unit.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow extra time to answer questions and provide one-on-one assistance when necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation to ensure all students are participating.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:

 Lesson2Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #3: Practice with One-Half

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Photocopy One-Half Practice Sheet (1 per student).

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Show fluency with one-half by dividing whole objects and sets of objects into one-half.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), “Fractions Around Us” Chart (from Lesson #2), Give me Half by Stuart J. Murphy, One-Half Practice Sheet (see attachment), crayons, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Review the chart “Fractions Around Us” from the previous day. If students have any other ideas, add them to the list.
2. Read the story Give me Half by Stuart J. Murphy out loud to the class. Ask students: What else can we cut in half or fold in half?
3. Write the number "1/2" on the board. Ask students: Do you remember how we read this? Write the word "half" on the board. Ask students: Can anybody read this word? Write the word "one-half" on the board. Ask students: Can anybody read this word? Explain to students: 1/2, half, and one-half are all used in the same way. Half and one-half are the same, and you will hear it said both ways.
4. Tell students: Today, you are going to practice showing one-half. Distribute One-Half Practice Sheet and give direction orally. Allow students time to work independently.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow extra time to answer questions and provide one-on-one assistance when necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor independent work to ensure all students are understanding the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
Attached Files:

 Lesson3Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #4: Introduce Numerator and Denominator

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the classroom; (3) Photocopy Candy Activity Sheet onto transparency paper for overhead projector; (4) Photocopy Candy Activity Sheet (1 per student).

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Identify Numerator and Denominator.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Vocabulary Cards (see attachment), Candy Activity Sheet (see attachment), Skittles candy, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Write the number "1/2" on the board. Ask students: Do you remember how we read this?
2. Tell students: Now we will take a closer look at the fraction one-half. The number on the top is called a numerator. Display vocabulary card numerator on the board. Tell students: The number on the bottom is called the denominator. Display vocabulary card denominator on the board.
3. Explain to students: You can think of the line in the fraction as saying “out of”. So if you ate one-half of a pizza you ate one out of two pieces of the pizza. The numerator, one, is the number you had, and the denominator, two, is the number of pieces total.
4. Tell students: Now let’s practice numerator and denominator. Display Candy Activity Sheet on the overhead projector and show students five different colored Skittles candies.
5. Tell students: Let’s think about how we can make fractions out of the Skittles. How many red skittles do you see? Write “1” on the Candy Activity Sheet. Tell students: I want you to think of the line in the fraction (point) as “out of”. So that would mean I have one red skittle out of how many skittles? Call on a student to answer.
6. Tell students: Remember, the number on the bottom of the fraction is the TOTAL number that you have. That is the denominator.
7. Repeat the same question sequence for each color until the example sheet is competed on the overhead projector.
8. Tell Students: Now you are each going to get your own Skittles and worksheet to complete. Distribute supplies and give students time to work independently.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow extra time to answer questions and provide one-on-one assistance when necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students are understanding the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
Attached Files:

 Lesson4Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #5: Going Beyond One-Half

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Photocopy Candy Fractions Activity Sheet (1 per student).

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Identify Numerator and Denominator.
• Identify and write fractions 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, and 1/10.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Candy Fractions Activity Sheet (see attachment), Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups (1 per 2 students), gummy worms (1 per 3 students), Kit Kat Bars (1 per 4 students), Hershey’s Bars (1 per 6 students), Fruit Roll-Ups (1 per 8 students), licorice (1 per 10 students), overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Show students the candy they will taste. Tell students: Today, you will taste all of these candies. There is one problem. I do not have enough of each candy for everyone. What can we do to make sure everyone gets to taste each candy? Guide students to answer cut them into smaller pieces, so that each person gets a fraction.
2. Distribute Candy Fractions Activity Sheet to each student.
3. Call two students to the front of the room and show them a Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup. Ask students: How should we cut the candy? What fraction of the candy will each student eat? Repeat until each student has had a chance to come up and eat one-half of a peanut butter cup. Direct students to complete appropriate section of the Candy Fractions Activity Sheet.
4. Call three students to the front of the room and show them a gummy worm. Ask students: How should we cut the candy? What fraction of the candy will each student eat? Repeat until each student has had a chance to come up and eat one-third of a gummy worm. Direct students to complete appropriate section of the Candy Fractions Activity Sheet.
5. Repeat the same procedure for each of the remaining candies, dividing the Kit Kat bars into fourths, Hershey bars into sixths, the Fruit Roll-Ups into eighths, and the licorice into tenths.
6. Direct students to finish completing the remainder of the Candy Fraction Activity Sheet.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow extra time to answer questions and provide one-on-one assistance when necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.
• Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.
• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:

 Lesson5Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #6: Making Fractions I

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the clasroom; (3) Photocopy Clay Fractions Activity Sheet (1 per student).

Group Size: Partners

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Identify Numerator and Denominator.
• Identify and write fractions 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, and 1/10.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Clay Fractions Activity Sheet (see attachment), Vocabulary Cards (see attachment), overhead projector, clay or Play-Doh, toothpicks (1 per 2 students)

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Divide students into partners. Within each partner group, designate a Partner 1 and a Partner 2. Explain to students they should assist their partner when it is not their turn to solve the problem.
2. Display Vocabulary Cards Fraction, Numerator, and Denominator on the board.
3. Distribute a handful of clay and a toothpick to each group. Instruct students to shape clay into a flat square.
4. Tell students: Now I want you to divide your clay into half. Ask students: What is the fraction? Call on one student to write "1/2" on the board. Tell students: Use your toothpick to write one-half on each piece of your clay. Now ask students: What is the numerator? What is the denominator?
5. Remind students to switch partners and tell them: Next make a flat circle with your clay. Then repeat the same question sequence with one-third.
6. Remind students to switch partners and thell them: Make a flat square again with your clay. Repeat the same question sequence for one-fourth.
7. Continuing with a square shape, repeat the same procedure with one-sixth, one-eighth, and one-tenth.
8. Collect clay and toothpicks from students and distribute Clay Fractions Activity Sheet. Instruct students to work with their partner to draw the fractions they just modeled with their clay.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow extra time to answer questions and provide one-on-one assistance when necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
Attached Files:

 Lesson6Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #7: Making Fractions II

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out 6” squares of construction paper (10 per student)

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Identify Numerator and Denominator.
• Identify and write fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 2/4, 2/6, 2/8, 3/4, 3/6, 3/8.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), construction paper, crayons, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Distribute construction paper squares and crayons to students.
2. Tell students: Put your paper squares in the corner of your desk. Choose one square to use first and put it in front of you.
3. Give students directions: Fold your paper in half. What fraction is this? Give students time to answer. Then direct students to color in one-half and label that part “1/2”.
4. Tell students: Now that we have made one-half, let’s make another fraction. Put another piece of paper in front of you. Fold it in half. Then fold it in half again. Teacher should demonstrate. Ask students: What fraction is this? Give students time to answer. Then direct students to color in one-fourth and label that part “1/4”. Ask students: What is the numerator? What is the denominator?
5. Continue with the same directions and questions for the remainder of eight squares of construction paper, using the fractions 1/6, 1/8, 2/4, 2/6, 2/8, 3/4, 3/6, and 3/8.
6. As students color and write each fraction, ask: What is the numerator? What is the denominator?
Modifications: For students with special needs, teacher can assist with folding the paper as necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
Attached Files:

 Lesson7Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #8: Comparing Fractions I

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Cut out and laminate Vocabulary Cards for display in the classroom; (3) Assemble Fraction Circles (1 per student); (4) Photocopy Comparing Fractions Practice Sheet (1 per student).

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Compare fractions and explain why fractions are smaller or bigger than one another.
• Understand that bigger fractions have smaller denominators.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Fraction Circles (see attachment), Comparing Fractions Practice Sheet (see attachment), Gator Pie by Louise Matthews, Vocabulary Cards (see attachment), overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards draw a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Distribute Fraction Circles and show students how to use them.
2. Tell students: I am going to read you a story. I want you to pretend that you are an alligator in the story. Every time the pie in the story is cut, I want you to use your Fraction Circle to show me how much of the pie you would get to eat. Read the story Gator Pie out loud to students.
3. Pause while reading to ask students: How much of the pie would you get to eat? What is the fraction? Call on a student to come write the correct fraction on the board. Repeat this questioning each time the pie in the story is cut.
4. When the story is finished, ask students: Did you get more or less of the pie as the story went on? Would you rather share with two people or with twelve people? What happens to the denominator? Make sure that students understand as the denominator gets bigger, their share gets smaller.
5. Display Vocabulary Cards > and < on the board. Review the meaning with students.
6. Use two fractions from the story to practice using > and <. For example, put "1/2" and "1/12" on the board and have students use > and < to show which piece of pie would be bigger. Continue with three or four more examples from the story.
7. Tell students: Now you are going to get to try this on your own. Distribute Comparing Fractions Practice Sheet to students and instruct them to fill in the blank with > or < for each problem.
Modifications: For students with special needs, teacher can assist with writing when necessary and allow for extra time.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Data and Analysis and Probability Standard:

• Pose questions and gather data about themselves and their surroundings.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.
Attached Files:

 Lesson8Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #9: Comparing Fractions II

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector.

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Compare fractions and explain why fractions are smaller or bigger than one another.
• Understand that bigger fractions have smaller denominators.
• Understand that two different fractions can equal one another.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), “Fractions Around Us” Chart (from Lesson #2), paper plates (3 per student), rulers, red crayons, blue crayons, green crayons, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards drawing a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Review the chart “Fractions Around Us” from Lesson #2. If students have any other ideas, add them to the list.
2. Tell students: We all know that one place we see fractions is pizza. Today, we are going to practice fractions with pizza.
3. Distribute paper plates, crayons, and rulers to students.
4. Direct students to mark the center of a paper plate with a dot and then to use a ruler to draw a line across the plate. Ask students: How should we label the parts of the plate? Instruct student to label each part with “1/2” and to color in one part with a red crayon.
5. Direct students to mark the center of the second paper plate with a dot and to use a ruler to divide the plate into fourths. Ask students: How should we label the parts of the plate? Instruct students to label each part with “1/4” and to color in one part with a red crayon.
6. Direct students to mark the center of the third paper plate with a dot and to use a ruler to divide the plate into eighths. Ask students: How should we label the parts of the plate? Instruct students to label each part with “1/8” and to color in one part with a red crayon.
7. Have students look at all three plates. Ask them: Which piece of pizza is the biggest? Which is the smallest? What happens to the size of the pizza slice as the denominator gets bigger?
8. Tell students: Look at your pizza that is divided into fourths. Take a green crayon and color in one-fourth green. Once students have done that, ask them: Look at your fourths pizza again. It looks like two-fourths is the same as what other piece of pizza? Make sure students understand that two-fourths is the same as one-half. Write “2/4 = 1/2” on the board.
9. Tell students: Look at your pizza that is divided into eighths. Take a green crayon and color in one-eighth green. Once students have done that, ask them: Look at your eighths pizza again. It looks like two-eighths is the same as what other piece of pizza? Make sure students understand that two-eighths is the same as one-fourth. Write “2/8 = 1/4” on the board.
10. Tell students: Take a look at one-half and one fourth. What can we say about those two fractions? Guide students towards the answer, and write “1/2 > 1/4” on the board. Ask students: What do you notice about the size of the fraction as the denominator gets bigger?
11. Continue asking questions, making comparisons, and writing them on the board until students understand.
12. Challenge students to come up with their own comparisons.
Modifications: For students with special needs, teacher can assist with writing when necessary and allow for extra time.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation and independent work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Data and Analysis and Probability Standard:

• Pose questions and gather data about themselves and their surroundings.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:

 Lesson9Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #10: Fraction Bingo

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Photocopy Bingo Game Board (1 per student); (3) Photocopy Bingo Caller Cards (1 per small group).

Group Size: Small groups

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Read fractions and identify written fractions.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Bingo Game Board (see attachment), Bingo Caller Cards (see attachment); paper markers or pennies, scissors, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards drawing a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Distribute a Bingo Game Board to each student. Explain to students: Today you will be playing Bingo with fractions. First, we need to fill out our game boards.
2. Call out fractions from Bingo Caller Cards and show students how to put a fraction inside each square of their game board. Make sure students understand to place fractions randomly around the game board and not in order so that each player’s board is different.
3. Divide students into small groups of four or five. Give each group a designated area of the classroom to play the game.
4. Distribute one set of Bingo Caller Cards, a pair of scissors, and a handful of bingo markers to each group. Direct students to cut apart Bingo Caller Cards.
5. Remind students how to play Bingo if necessary.
6. Give groups time to play the game. Each student in the group should have one turn to be the caller.
Modifications: For students with special needs, teacher can assist with writing in fractions. Students can be paired with another student to assist with playing the game.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
Attached Files:

 Lesson10Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #11: Fraction Matching Game

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Photocopy Fraction Matching Game (1 per 2 students).

Group Size: Partners

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Read fractions and identify written fractions.
Materials:

Problem of the Day (see attachment), Fraction Matching Game (see attachment), scissors, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards drawing a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Divide students into groups of two. Distribute one Fraction Matching Game to each set of partners.
2. Direct students to cut apart game pieces.
3. Remind students of the rules to play Memory. Lay out the cards, face down. Students take turns flipping over two cards to try to match the written fraction with the picture of the same fraction. When a student makes a match, he keeps the cards. The student with the most cards at the end is the winner.
4. When the game ends, have students mix up the cards, switch partners, and play again.
Modifications: For students with special needs, the teacher can allow students to play on a team with another student.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student participation to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Number and Operations Standard:

• Understand and represent commonly used fractions, such as 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
Attached Files:

 Lesson11Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #12: Writing a Fraction Story I

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (2) Photocopy the Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer onto transparency paper for the overhead projector; (3) Photocopy Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer (1 per student).

Group Size: Whole class

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Apply fractions in a setting outside of mathematics.
• Write a complete story about fractions.
Materials:

Problem of the Day, Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards drawing a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Tell students: Today you are going to write stories. Each of your stories will have fractions in them. Does anybody have any ideas for a story with fractions? Call on students who volunteer ideas.
2. Tell students: Before we begin writing, let’s remember the writing process. Review Pre-Writing, Editing, and Final Copy with the students.
3. Tell students: Today we will begin with pre-writing. We are going to get our ideas down on paper. I will show you my story first. Display Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer on the overhead projector.
4. Do an example of pre-writing with the class, asking for students’ ideas and input.
5. Tell students: Now you will each to get to do your own pre-writing. Remember, your story should be different from my story. You need to come up with your own ideas for a fraction story.
6. Distribute Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer to students and give them time fill in the blanks.
7. When students are finished working, collect papers for use the next day.
Modifications: For students with special needs, allow for extra time and help with spelling and grammar as necessary.

Assessment:

Teacher should monitor student work to ensure all students understand the concept.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:

 Lesson12Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf

Lesson #13: Writing a Fraction Story II

Introduction:

Prior to beginning the lesson: (1) Photocopy the Problem of the Day onto transparency paper for the overhead projector.

Group Size: Partners

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to:

• Apply fractions in a setting outside of mathematics.
• Write a complete story about fractions.
Materials:

Problem of the Day, Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer (from Lesson #12), writing paper, overhead projector

Procedures:

Lesson Introduction: Display Problem of the Day on the overhead projector. Ask students: What strategy should we use to solve this problem? Guide them towards drawing a picture. Solve the problem together as a class. Students can copy problem and solution into math notebooks.

1. Tell students: Today you are going to continue working on your fraction stories.
2. Tell students: Before we begin today, let's remember the writing process. Review pre-writing, editing, and final copy. Tell students: Today we will be doing editing.
3. Distribute Pre-Writing Graphic Organizer from the previous lesson and instruct students to copy their stories onto writing paper.
4. Divide students into partners, and give partners time to read one another’s stories and make corrections.
5. While students are working in partners, the teacher should individually conference with each student about their stories.
6. Give students more time to make a final copy and to illustrate their fraction story.
*This lesson will last for more than one day*

Modifications: For students with special needs, allow for extra time.

Benchmark or Standards:

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standard:

• Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.
• Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
Attached Files:

 Lesson13Resources.FunwithFractions.pdf