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Laurah Jurca
Laurah Jurca
(Laurel - United States)

<p>I currently serve as an ESOL Coach for my school district in Maryland. I work with both ESOL and mainstream teachers to help them improve the quality of their instruction for their English language learners. During my career, I have taught grades k-8,  ...

Acids, Bases & Salts

Slideshow: Acids and Bases

This resource is a PowerPoint presentation on acids and bases. Headings include: characteristics and examples of acids, characteristics and examples of bases, Arrehenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry Theory, Lewis Theory, conjugate base, conjugate acid, amphoteric.

This resource is part of the Chemistry course which contains units on Lab Setup and Safety; Nomenclature; Chemical Reactions and Balancing; Metric Systems & Conversions; Periodic Table and Trends; Atomic Structure; Nuclear Chemistry; Acids, Bases, & Salts; Bonding; Percent Composition; Solutions, Molarity, and Concentrations; Stoichiometry; Energy; Gas Laws; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Electron Configuration; and Redox Reactions.

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Acid and Base Stations

In this exercise, students rotate through stations, doing exercises about acids and bases. Some are mini-labs, some are readings and questions. The reading sections are dependent on some texts that we don't have. Let's get those replaced with free, online alternatives.

This resource is part of the Chemistry course which contains units on Lab Setup and Safety; Nomenclature; Chemical Reactions and Balancing; Metric Systems & Conversions; Periodic Table and Trends; Atomic Structure; Nuclear Chemistry; Acids, Bases, & Salts; Bonding; Percent Composition; Solutions, Molarity, and Concentrations; Stoichiometry; Energy; Gas Laws; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Electron Configuration; and Redox Reactions.

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Worksheet: Acids and Bases

Identifying Acids and Bases

In each of the following identify the, Arrhenius acid, Arrhenius base, B-L acid, B-L base, the conjugate acid (CA), and the conjugate (CB).  A reaction may not have every one of these present.

1.     F- +   H3O+ ←→ HF + H2O

 

2.     HO ←→ H+ + OH-

 

3.     H3PO4 + NO2-   ←→  HNO2 + H3PO4- 

 

4.     HCl + H2O   ←→  H3O+ +  Cl-

5.     HCl + NH3 ←→ NH4+ + Cl-

 

6.     KOH ←→  K+ +  OH-

 

7.     NH3 + H2O ←→NH4+ + OH- 

 

8.     NH3 + OH- ←→ NH2- + H2O

 

Quiz: Acid & Base

Acid / Base Quiz

 

NAME

FORMULA

Magnesium hydroxide

 Mg(OH)2

Hydrochloric acid

 HCl

Nitric Acid

 HNO3

Hydrobromic acid

 HBr

Sodium hydroxide

 NaOH

Hydroiodic acid

 HI

Carbonic acid

 H2CO3

 Ammonia

NH3

 Acetic acid

HC2H3O2

 Potassium hydroxide

KOH

 Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

 Sulfuric acid

H2SO4

 Phosphoric acid

H3PO4

 Barium hydroxide

Ba(OH)2

 

Worksheet: Acids and Bases 1

 

Acids and Bases

For each reaction listed, identify the proton donor (acid), the proton acceptor (base), the conjugate acid and the conjugate base:

 

HCl(aq)  +  H2O(l)    H3O+(aq)  +  Cl-(aq) 

 

 

HCl(aq)  +  NH3(g)    NH4+(aq)  +  Cl-(aq)

 

 

NH3(aq)  +  H2O(l)    NH4+(aq)  +  OH-(aq) 

 

 

H2SO4(aq)  +  H2O(l)    H3O+(aq)  +  HSO4-(aq) 

 

 

HC2H3O2(aq)  +  H2O(l)    H3O+(aq)  +  C2H3O2-(aq) 

 

 

HCO3-(aq)  +  H2O(l)    H2CO3(aq)  +  OH-(aq) 

 

 

HCN(aq)  +  SO42-(aq)    HSO4-(aq)  +  CN-(aq) 

 

 

A buffer solution is formed from carbonic acid (H2CO3) and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-).

Write the equation for the reaction that occurs when an acid is added to this solution:

 

 

 

Write the equation for the reaction that occurs when a base is added to this solution:

 

 

 

A buffer solution is formed from hypochlorous acid (HClO) and the hypochlorite ion (ClO-).

Write the equation for the reaction that occurs when an acid is added to this solution:

Worksheet: Acids and Bases 2

Acids and Bases – Problem Set #2

Directions:  Do all work on a separate sheet of paper.  You do not need to recopy any of the questions.  Show ALL WORK to receive full credit – do not simply write down the answers.


1)    Find the pH for each of the following solutions:

  1. 1.54 x 10-2  M HI
  2. 4.67 x 10-5  M HNO3
  3. 8.76 x 10-4  M KOH
  4. 6.44 x 10-3  M LiOH

 

2)    For each of the following pH values, calculate the [H3O+] and the [OH-].

  1. 2
  2. 12
  3. 7
  4. 4
  5. 9

 

3)    For the following solutions, calculate the [H3O+] and the [OH-] using Kw.

  1. 5.67 x 10-3  M HCl
  2. 6.32 x 10-6  M HClO4
  3. 8.76 x 10-5  M Ba(OH)2
  4. 1.56 x 10-2  M NaOH

 

 

4)    21.0 mL of an unknown solution of H2SO4 was titrated to the end point with 37.0 mL of 0.426 M KOH.  What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid?

 

 

5)    In a titration, 23.5 mL of a .340 M solution of H2CO3 was used to neutralize 27.6 mL of LiOH.  What is the molarity of LiOH?

 

 

6)    In the titration of 42.0 mL of an NH3 solution, the end point was reached when 35.4 mL of 0.143 M HCl was added.  What is the concentration of the ammonia solution?

 

 

7)    34.0 mL of HC2H3O2 was neutralized by 11.2 mL of 0.0527 M Ca(OH)2.  Calculate the concentration of the acetic acid.

 

 

8)    What volume of 0.320 M H3PO4 neutralizes 35.0 mL of 0.420 M Ba(OH)2?

 

Worksheet: Acids and Bases 3

Acids & Bases – Problem Set #3

 1)    For each reaction listed, identify the proton donor (acid), the proton acceptor (base), the conjugate acid and the conjugate base:

 

a.    H2PO4-(aq)  +  H2O(l)    H3PO4(aq)  +  H3O+(aq) 

 

 

b.    H2O(l)  +  Cl-(aq)    OH-(aq)  +  HCl(aq)

 

 

c.    NH3(aq)  +  H2PO4-(aq)    NH4+(aq)  +  HPO42-(aq) 

 

 

2)    For each of the following salts, predict whether an aqueous solution would be acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.  AgI                                b.  KNO3                                 c.  Cu(NO3)2 

d.  CaSO4                         e.  BaCO3                               f.  NaCl

 

3)    A solution of Al(OH)3 is found to have a [OH-] of 3.72 x 10-5 M.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

4)    You have made a solution of 5.00 x 10-4 M HNO3.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

5)    You have made a solution of 3.25 x 10-6 M H2SO4.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

6)    You have made a solution of 1.99 x 10-2 M NaOH.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

7)    You have made a solution of 4.50 x 10-8 M LiOH.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

8)    In lab, you discover the pH of your solution to be 3.45.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-]?  Is this solution acidic or basic?  What is its pOH?

 

9)    In lab, you discover the pH of your solution to be 8.23.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-]?  Is this solution acidic or basic?  What is its pOH?

 

10) In lab, you discover the pOH of your solution to be 3.45.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?

 

11) What is the pOH of a 3.34 x 10-3 M solution of H2SO4?

 

Lab: Identifying Acids and Bases

Lab: Titration of Vinegar

Acid-Base Titration of Vinegar

Procedure:

1)    Check the set-up of your lab station.  Make sure you have two burets labeled acid and NaOH.  Make sure the burets have a minimum of 40 mL of either acid or base in them to start with.  You should have a beaker for waste, a wash bottle of distilled water and an Erlenmeyer flask in which to perform the titration.  You will also need phenolphthalein indicator solution in a dropper bottle.

 

2)    Record exact initial volume of acid buret.  Dispense about 10 mL HC2H3O2 into Erlenmeyer flask (the exact amount is not critical – just make sure you record the exact amount you dispense).  Record the exact final volume of the buret.

 

3)    Add approximately 10 mL of distilled water to the Erlenmeyer flask (measure out 10 mL in a graduated cylinder, then pour into the flask) and 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein. 

 

4)    Record the exact initial volume of the NaOH buret.  Carefully add NaOH with constant swirling of the flask until a very pale, persistent pink color is reached.  This is your equivalence point (endpoint).  Record the exact final volume of the buret.

 

4b.  If you go past the equivalence point (very dark pink) add HC2H3O2 into the flask until the

color clears (no more pink), then carefully add NaOH drop by drop until you reach the endpoint (pale, persistent pink).  Record your new final volumes of HC2H3O2 and NaOH.

 

5)    Solutions may be emptied down the drain.  Rinse flask several times with distilled water.  It is not necessary to dry the flask.

 

6)    Repeat steps 2-5 two more times.  Add more vinegar and NaOH as necessary, using the correct funnel.

 

 

Data Collection

 Molarity of standard NaOH solution: ___________

Trial

Initial Volume

Final Volume

Δ Volume

Initial Volume

Final Volume

Δ Volume

 

HC2H3O2  (ml)

HC2H3O2  (ml)

HC2H3O2  (ml)

(Vf - Vi)

NaOH  (ml)

NaOH  (ml)

NaOH  (ml)

(Vf - Vi)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis

1.    Write and balance the neutralization equation for acetic acid and sodium hydroxide.

2.    Calculate the molarity of acetic acid for each trial.

3.    Using the concentration from each trial, calculate the average molarity of HC2H3O2.

4.    The label for vinegar says that the acid has been diluted to 5% by mass, which translates into roughly 0.830 M.  Were your results accurate?  Were they precise?  Explain your answers to both.  (Remember the difference?  If you don’t remember, you better look it up!)

5.    Quantitatively express accuracy by calculating % difference for EACH trial and the average concentration of vinegar you found.

Lab: Antacids

Acids and Bases Review

Acids & Bases – Review 

1)    For each reaction listed, identify the proton donor (acid), the proton acceptor (base), the conjugate acid and the conjugate base:

 

a.    H2PO4-(aq)  +  OH-(aq)    HPO42-(aq)  +  H2O(l) 

 

 

b.    H3O+(aq)  +  Cl-(aq)    H2O(l)  +  HCl(aq)

 

 

c.    NH4+(aq)  +  H2PO4-(aq)    NH3(aq)  +  H3PO4(aq) 

 

 

2)    For each of the following salts, predict whether an aqueous solution would be acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.  CaI2                             b.  K2CO3                               c.  Au(NO3)2 

d.  Ca(C2H3O2)2              e.  CuSO4                              f.  LiCl

 

3)    A solution of Ca(OH)2 is found to have a [OH-] of 2.73 x 10-5 M.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  What is the pOH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

 

4)    You have made a solution of 4.50 x 10-3 M HNO3.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

 

5)    You have made a solution of 9.12 x 10-4 M NaOH.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-] of this solution?  What is the pH of this solution?  Is this solution acidic or basic?

 

 

6)    In lab, you discover the pH of your solution to be 5.43.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-]?  Is this solution acidic or basic?  What is its pOH?

 

 

7)    In lab, you discover the pH of your solution to be 7.21.  What is the [H3O+] of this solution?  What is the [OH-]?  Is this solution acidic or basic?  What is its pOH?

 

 

8)    In the titration of 45.0 mL of an NH3 solution, the end point was reached when 18.9 mL of 0.250 M HCl was added.  What is the concentration of the ammonia solution?

 

 

9)    25.0 mL of an unknown solution of H2SO4 was titrated to the end point with 38.4 mL of 0.512 M KOH.  What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid?