In this 15-page article (pdf) Liping Ma discusses the evolution and organizational structure of U.S. mathematics education and contrasts it with that of China, which is more unified and definition-based. She maintains that the strands structure of the U.S. has led to instability, discontinuity, and incoherence among concepts, and suggests that math educators reconsider school arithmetic as the core unifying subject around which to organize elementary mathematics instruction.

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