Type:

Unit

Description:

This unit describes the simplest life-forms

Subjects:

  • Science > General
  • Science > Biology

Education Levels:

  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12
  • Higher Education
  • Graduate
  • Undergraduate-Upper Division
  • Undergraduate-Lower Division

Keywords:

biology

Language:

English

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Update Standards?

SCI.9-12.B1.1A: Science

Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field.

SCI.9-12.B1.1B: Science

Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.

SCI.9-12.B1.1C: Science

Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).

SCI.9-12.B1.1D: Science

Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.

SCI.9-12.B1.1E: Science

Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.

SCI.9-12.B1.1f: Science

Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.

SCI.9-12.B1.1g: Science

Use empirical evidence to explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.

SCI.9-12.B1.1h: Science

Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.

SCI.9-12.B1.1i: Science

Distinguish between scientific explanations that are regarded as current scientific consensus and the emerging questions that active researchers investigate.

SCI.9-12.B1.2A: Science

Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.

SCI.9-12.B1.2B: Science

Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.

SCI.9-12.B1.2C: Science

Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information.

SCI.9-12.B1.2D: Science

Evaluate scientific explanations in a peer review process or discussion format.

SCI.9-12.B1.2E: Science

Evaluate the future career and occupational prospects of science fields.

SCI.9-12.B1.2f: Science

Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.

SCI.9-12.B1.2g: Science

Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.

SCI.9-12.B1.2h: Science

Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.

SCI.9-12.B1.2i: Science

Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that leads to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.

SCI.9-12.B1.2j: Science

Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.

SCI.9-12.B1.2k: Science

Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.

SCI.9-12.L2.p1A: Science

Distinguish between living and nonliving systems. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p1B: Science

Explain the importance of both water and the element carbon to cells. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p1C: Science

Describe growth and development in terms of increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p1D: Science

Explain how the systems in a multicellular organism work together to support the organism. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p1E: Science

Compare and contrast how different organisms accomplish similar functions (e.g., obtain oxygen for respiration, and excrete waste). (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p2A: Science

Describe how organisms sustain life by obtaining, transporting, transforming, releasing, and eliminating matter and energy. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p2B: Science

Describe the effect of limiting food to developing cells. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p3A: Science

Explain the significance of carbon in organic molecules. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p3B: Science

Explain the origins of plant mass. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p3C: Science

Predict what would happen to plants growing in low carbon dioxide atmospheres. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p3D: Science

Explain how the roots of specific plants grow. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p4A: Science

Classify different organisms based on how they obtain energy for growth and development. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p4B: Science

Explain how an organism obtains energy from the food it consumes. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p5A: Science

Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S). (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p5B: Science

Identify the most common complex molecules that make up living organisms. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L2.p5C: Science

Predict what would happen if essential elements were withheld from developing cells. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.B2.1A: Science

Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis.

SCI.9-12.B2.1B: Science

Compare and contrast the transformation of matter and energy during photosynthesis and respiration.

SCI.9-12.B2.1C: Science

Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products.

SCI.9-12.B2.1d: Science

Describe how, through cell division, cells can become specialized for specific function.

SCI.9-12.B2.1e: Science

Predict what would happen if the cells from one part of a developing embryo were transplanted to another part of the embryo.

SCI.9-12.B2.2A: Science

Explain how carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.

SCI.9-12.B2.2B: Science

Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S).

SCI.9-12.B2.2C: Science

Describe the composition of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).

SCI.9-12.B2.2D: Science

Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms.

SCI.9-12.B2.2E: Science

Describe how dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules.

SCI.9-12.B2.2f: Science

Explain the role of enzymes and other proteins in biochemical functions (e.g., the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones).

SCI.9-12.B2.2g: Science

Propose how moving an organism to a new environment may influence its ability to survive and predict the possible impact of this type of transfer.

SCI.9-12.B2.3A: Science

Describe how cells function in a narrow range of physical conditions, such as temperature and pH (acidity), to perform life functions.

SCI.9-12.B2.3B: Science

Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life.

SCI.9-12.B2.3C: Science

Explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence of disease agents.

SCI.9-12.B2.3d: Science

Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other.

SCI.9-12.B2.3e: Science

Describe how human body systems maintain relatively constant internal conditions (temperature, acidity, and blood sugar).

SCI.9-12.B2.3f: Science

Explain how human organ systems help maintain human health.

SCI.9-12.B2.3g: Science

Compare the structure and function of a human body system or subsystem to a nonliving system (e.g., human joints to hinges, enzyme and substrate to interlocking puzzle pieces).

SCI.9-12.B2.4A: Science

Explain that living things can be classified based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence.

SCI.9-12.B2.4B: Science

Describe how various organisms have developed different specializations to accomplish a particular function and yet the end result is the same (e.g., excreting nitrogenous wastes in animals, obtaining oxygen for respiration).

SCI.9-12.B2.4C: Science

Explain how different organisms accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes).

SCI.9-12.B2.4d: Science

Analyze the relationships among organisms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes.

SCI.9-12.B2.4e: Science

Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic).

SCI.9-12.B2.4f: Science

Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.

SCI.9-12.B2.4g: Science

Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.

SCI.9-12.B2.4h: Science

Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria.

SCI.9-12.B2.4i: Science

Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material to invade living cells.

SCI.9-12.B2.5A: Science

Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds.

SCI.9-12.B2.5B: Science

Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions.

SCI.9-12.B2.5C: Science

Describe how energy is transferred and transformed from the Sun to energy-rich molecules during photosynthesis.

SCI.9-12.B2.5D: Science

Describe how individual cells break down energy-rich molecules to provide energy for cell functions.

SCI.9-12.B2.5e: Science

Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of ATP synthesis and degradation.

SCI.9-12.B2.5f: Science

Relate plant structures and functions to the process of photosynthesis and respiration.

SCI.9-12.B2.5g: Science

Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.

SCI.9-12.B2.5h: Science

Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).

SCI.9-12.B2.5i: Science

Relate cell parts/organelles to their function.

SCI.9-12.B2.6a: Science

Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

SCI.9-12.B2.r6b: Science

Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B2.r6c: Science

Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B2.r6d: Science

Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complex interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B2.r6e: Science

Analyze the body's response to medical interventions such as organ transplants, medicines, and inoculations. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.L3.p1A: Science

Provide examples of a population, community, and ecosystem. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p2A: Science

Describe common relationships among organisms and provide examples of producer/consumer, predator/ prey, or parasite/host relationship. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p2B: Science

Describe common ecological relationships between and among species and their environments (competition, territory, carrying capacity, natural balance, population, dependence, survival, and other biotic and abiotic factors). (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p2C: Science

Describe the role of decomposers in the transfer of energy in an ecosystem. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p2D: Science

Explain how two organisms can be mutually beneficial and how that can lead to interdependency. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p3A: Science

Identify the factors in an ecosystem that influence fluctuations in population size. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p3B: Science

Distinguish between the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of an ecosystem. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p3C: Science

Explain how biotic and abiotic factors cycle in an ecosystem (water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen). (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p3D: Science

Predict how changes in one population might affect other populations based upon their relationships in a food web. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L3.p4A: Science

Recognize that, and describe how, human beings are part of Earth's ecosystems. Note that human activities can deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.B3.1A: Science

Describe how organisms acquire energy directly or indirectly from sunlight.

SCI.9-12.B3.1B: Science

Illustrate and describe the energy conversions that occur during photosynthesis and respiration.

SCI.9-12.B3.1C: Science

Recognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration and identify the reactants and products for both.

SCI.9-12.B3.1D: Science

Explain how living organisms gain and use mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.

SCI.9-12.B3.1e: Science

Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration and explain in words what they mean.

SCI.9-12.B3.1f: Science

Summarize the process of photosynthesis.

SCI.9-12.B3.2A: Science

Identify how energy is stored in an ecosystem.

SCI.9-12.B3.2B: Science

Describe energy transfer through an ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat.

SCI.9-12.B3.2C: Science

Draw the flow of energy through an ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are removed.

SCI.9-12.B3.3A: Science

Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels.

SCI.9-12.B3.3b: Science

Describe environmental processes (e.g., the carbon and nitrogen cycles) and their role in processing matter crucial for sustaining life.

SCI.9-12.B3.4A: Science

Describe ecosystem stability. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages of succession that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.

SCI.9-12.B3.4B: Science

Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living organisms will survive in the face of cataclysmic changes in the environment.

SCI.9-12.B3.4C: Science

Examine the negative impact of human activities.

SCI.9-12.B3.4d: Science

Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes.

SCI.9-12.B3.4e: Science

List the possible causes and consequences of global warming.

SCI.9-12.B3.5A: Science

Graph changes in population growth, given a data table.

SCI.9-12.B3.5B: Science

Explain the influences that affect population growth.

SCI.9-12.B3.5C: Science

Predict the consequences of an invading organism on the survival of other organisms.

SCI.9-12.B3.5d: Science

Describe different reproductive strategies employed by various organisms and explain their advantages and disadvantages.

SCI.9-12.B3.5e: Science

Recognize that and describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of population dynamics within ecosystems.

SCI.9-12.B3.5f: Science

Graph an example of exponential growth. Then show the population leveling off at the carrying capacity of the environment.

SCI.9-12.B3.r5g: Science

Diagram and describe the stages of the life cycle for a human disease-causing organism. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.L4.p1A: Science

Compare and contrast the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L4.p1B: Science

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L4.p2A: Science

Explain that the traits of an individual are influenced by both the environment and the genetics of the individual. Acquired traits are not inherited; only genetic traits are inherited. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.B4.1A: Science

Draw and label a homologous chromosome pair with heterozygous alleles highlighting a particular gene location.

SCI.9-12.B4.1B: Science

Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins.

SCI.9-12.B4.1c: Science

Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits.

SCI.9-12.B4.1d: Science

Explain the genetic basis for Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

SCI.9-12.B4.1e: Science

Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses using a Punnett Square.

SCI.9-12.B4.2A: Science

Show that when mutations occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring (inherited mutations), but if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only (noninherited mutations).

SCI.9-12.B4.2B: Science

Recognize that every species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.

SCI.9-12.B4.2C: Science

Describe the structure and function of DNA.

SCI.9-12.B4.2D: Science

Predict the consequences that changes in the DNA composition of particular genes may have on an organism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, other).

SCI.9-12.B4.2E: Science

Propose possible effects (on the genes) of exposing an organism to radiation and toxic chemicals.

SCI.9-12.B4.2f: Science

Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.

SCI.9-12.B4.2g: Science

Describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation and how they relate to each other in molecular biology.

SCI.9-12.B4.2h: Science

Recognize that genetic engineering techniques provide great potential and responsibilities.

SCI.9-12.B4.r2i: Science

Explain how recombinant DNA technology allows scientists to analyze the structure and function of genes. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B4.3A: Science

Compare and contrast the processes of cell division (mitosis and meiosis), particularly as those processes relate to production of new cells and to passing on genetic information between generations.

SCI.9-12.B4.3B: Science

Explain why only mutations occurring in gametes (sex cells) can be passed on to offspring.

SCI.9-12.B4.3C: Science

Explain how it might be possible to identify genetic defects from just a karyotype of a few cells.

SCI.9-12.B4.3d: Science

Explain that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of two parents.

SCI.9-12.B4.3e: Science

Recognize that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.

SCI.9-12.B4.3f: Science

Predict how mutations may be transferred to progeny.

SCI.9-12.B4.3g: Science

Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence (e.g., metamorphosis, nutrition).

SCI.9-12.B4.4a: Science

Describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

SCI.9-12.B4.4b: Science

Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.

SCI.9-12.B4.4c: Science

Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may be silent or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring.

SCI.9-12.B4.r5a: Science

Explain how recombinant DNA technology allows scientists to analyze the structure and function of genes. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B4.r5b: Science

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of human manipulation of DNA. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.L5.p1A: Science

Define a species and give examples. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L5.p1B: Science

Define a population and identify local populations. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L5.p1C: Science

Explain how extinction removes genes from the gene pool. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L5.p1D: Science

Explain the importance of the fossil record. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.L5.p2A: Science

Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time. (prerequisite)

SCI.9-12.B5.1A: Science

Summarize the major concepts of natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending on environmental conditions).

SCI.9-12.B5.1B: Science

Describe how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution.

SCI.9-12.B5.1c: Science

Summarize the relationships between present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis).

SCI.9-12.B5.1d: Science

Explain how a new species or variety originates through the evolutionary process of natural selection.

SCI.9-12.B5.1e: Science

Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for the environment (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending upon environmental conditions).

SCI.9-12.B5.1f: Science

Explain, using examples, how the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence supports the theory of evolution.

SCI.9-12.B5.1g: Science

Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population through natural selection (evolution) resulting in biodiversity.

SCI.9-12.B5.2a: Science

Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms that can be classified based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities.

SCI.9-12.B5.2b: Science

Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA and protein sequences.

SCI.9-12.B5.2c: Science

Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of subpopulations.

SCI.9-12.B5.r2d: Science

Interpret a cladogram or phylogenetic tree showing evolutionary relationships among organisms. (recommended)

SCI.9-12.B5.3A: Science

Explain how natural selection acts on individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population.

SCI.9-12.B5.3B: Science

Describe the role of geographic isolation in speciation.

SCI.9-12.B5.3C: Science

Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms.

SCI.9-12.B5.3d: Science

Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity.

SCI.9-12.B5.3e: Science

Explain how changes at the gene level are the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new species.

SCI.9-12.B5.3f: Science

Demonstrate and explain how biotechnology can improve a population and species.

SCI.9-11.4.C: Science

compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

SCI.9-11.8.C: Science

compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

SCI.9-11.9.A: Science

compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;
Curriki Rating
On a scale of 0 to 3
3
On a scale of 0 to 3

This resource was reviewed using the Curriki Review rubric and received an overall Curriki Review System rating of 3, as of 2011-04-01.

Component Ratings:

Technical Completeness: 3
Content Accuracy: 3
Appropriate Pedagogy: 3

Reviewer Comments:

Sal Kahn aims to “empower everyone, everywhere with a free, world-class education” through his straightforward 10 – 15 minute tutorial videos comprised of simple graphics and personable narration. This particular collection contains eight such videos that break down the complex processes of cell respiration into small, easily understood chunks. The content is suitable for a high school or college course in the biological sciences. This is excellent primary material for long distance learning, or rich supplementary material for any biology course.

Not Rated Yet.

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