Atomic and Molecular Structure
1a Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.
1b Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens.
Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali
metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in
ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and
1d Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.
1e Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.
* Students know how to use the periodic table to identify the
lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide elements and know that the
transuranium elements were synthesized and identified in laboratory
experiments through the use of nuclear accelerators.
* Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic
table to its quantum electron configuration and to its reactivity with
other elements in the table.
1h * Students know the
experimental basis for Thomson's discovery of the electron, Rutherford's
nuclear atom, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, and Einstein's
explanation of the photoelectric effect.
1i * Students know
the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of
atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the
1j * Students know that spectral lines are the result
of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines
correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing
between levels by using Planck's relationship (E = hv).
2a Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing
electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons
to form ionic bonds.
2b Students know chemical bonds
between atoms in molecules such as H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2, and
many large biological molecules are covalent.
know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and
negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.
Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random
pattern relative to one another because the intermolecular forces are
too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in a solid form.
2e Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.
2f * Students know how to predict the shape of simple molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures.
2g * Students know how electronegativity and ionization energy relate to bond formation.
* Students know how to identify solids and liquids held together by
Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and relate these forces to
volatility and boiling/melting point temperatures.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
3a Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.
3b Students know the quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams.
3c Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 1023 particles (atoms or molecules).
Students know how to determine molar mass of a molecule from its
chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the
mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume
of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
know how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical
reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the
relevant atomic masses.
3f * Students know how to calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction.
* Students know how to identify reactions that involve oxidation and
reduction and how to balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Gases and Their Properties
4a Students know the random motion of molecules and their
collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that
4b Students know the random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases.
Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the
pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any
mixture of ideal gases.
4d Students know the values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP).
4e Students know how to convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
4f Students know there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin.
* Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute
temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or
4h * Students know how to solve problems by using the ideal gas law in the form PV = nRT.
* Students know how to apply Dalton's law of partial pressures to
describe the composition of gases and Graham’s law to predict diffusion
Acids and Bases
5a Students know the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.
5b Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances.
5c Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.
5d Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions.
5e * Students know the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid-base definitions.
5f * Students know how to calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration.
5g * Students know buffers stabilize pH in acid-base reactions.
6a Students know the definitions of solute and solvent.
Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the
molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion.
6c Students know temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the dissolving process.
Students know how to calculate the concentration of a solute in
terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts per million, and percent
6e * Students know the relationship between the
molality of solute in a solution and the solution’s depressed freezing
point or elevated boiling point.
6f * Students know how molecules in a solution are separated or purified by the methods of chromatography and distillation.
7a Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).
7b Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.
Students know energy is released when a material condenses or
freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.
Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and
temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat
of phase change.
7e * Students know how to apply Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy change in a reaction.
7f * Students know how to use the Gibbs free energy equation to determine whether a reaction would be spontaneous.
8a Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in
concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products
8b Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.
8c Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.
8d * Students know the definition and role of activation energy in a chemical reaction.
9a Students know how to use Le Chatelier's principle to
predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and
9b Students know equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
9c * Students know how to write and calculate an equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.
Organic and Biochemistry
10a Students know large molecules (polymers), such as proteins,
nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of
10b Students know the bonding
characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of a large
variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex
polymers and biological molecules.
10c Students know amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
* Students know the system for naming the ten simplest linear
hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single bonds, simple hydrocarbons
with double and triple bonds, and simple molecules that contain a
10e * Students know how to identify the
functional groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers,
amines, esters, aldehydes, and organic acids.
10f * Students
know the R-group structure of amino acids and know how they combine to
form the polypeptide backbone structure of proteins.
11a Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held
together by nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic repulsion
between the protons.
11b Students know the energy release
per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission
reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E
= mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.
Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are
radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.
Students know the three most common forms of radioactive decay
(alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how the nucleus changes in each type
11e Students know alpha, beta, and gamma
radiation produce different amounts and kinds of damage in matter and
have different penetrations.
11f * Students know how to
calculate the amount of a radioactive substance remaining after an
integral number of half lives have passed.
11g * Students know protons and neutrons have substructures and consist of particles called quarks.