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The molecular mechanisms underlying Ca2+ entry into sperm are now much more well defined thanks to direct recordings of mature sperm cells. This article reviews the function of a sperm-specific ion channel, CatSper. CatSpers have a clearly defined function in sperm's hyperactivated motility and are essential for male fertility. We propose that physiological stimuli such as zona pellucida and cyclic nucleotides induce Ca2+ entry through CatSper channels instead of acting on CaV and CNG channels as previously thought.
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