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In this module, you will learn about how certain carbohydrate pathways are reciprocally affected by insulin and glucagon. The areas of focus will be: a) regulation of glycolysis by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of key enzymes b) regulation of glycogen formation vs. breakdown, again by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation c) how this regulation is coordinated so as to avoid futile cycling and trapping of intermediates d) how this regulation fits with the overall function of insulin vs. glucagon. Instructions: The following problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem. 1. Liver enzymes affected by insulin 2. Enzyme dephosphorylation by insulin action 3. PFK-1 regulation in liver 4. Insulin regulation of glucokinase 5. Enzyme phosphorylation induced by glucagon 6. Epinephrine action to mobilize glycogen 7. A secondary action of epinephrine in liver 8. Insulin action in skeletal muscle This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.


  • Science > General
  • Science > Biology

Education Levels:

  • Grade 6
  • Grade 7
  • Grade 8
  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12


student-facing carbohydrate metabolism glycogen insulin liver glycolysis epinephrine PFK-1 phosphorylation dephosphorylation enzyme



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