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In this module, you will learn about how certain carbohydrate pathways are reciprocally affected by insulin and glucagon. The areas of focus will be: <p>a) regulation of glycolysis by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of key enzymes</p> <p>b) regulation of glycogen formation vs. breakdown, again by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation</p> <p>c) how this regulation is coordinated so as to avoid futile cycling and trapping of intermediates</p> <p>d) how this regulation fits with the overall function of insulin vs. glucagon.</p><p/> Instructions: The following problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem. <p/> <p>1. Liver enzymes affected by insulin</p> <p>2. Enzyme dephosphorylation by insulin action</p> <p>3. PFK-1 regulation in liver</p> <p>4. Insulin regulation of glucokinase</p> <p>5. Enzyme phosphorylation induced by glucagon</p> <p>6. Epinephrine action to mobilize glycogen</p> <p>7. A secondary action of epinephrine in liver</p> <p>8. Insulin action in skeletal muscle</p><p/> <p>This resource is part of the <b><a href="http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Coll_ALoom/BiologyLinksforOLPC"> Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child</a></b> course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology. </p>
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