Type:

E-book, Full Course

Description:

This folder contains 7 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from Chemistry sub-topics such as Matters and Material, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 10. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10 1.1 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.1 Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.2 Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.3 Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.1 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.2 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3 Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.1 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.2 Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.3 Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5 Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10 2.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2 Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.1 Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5 The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 The Atom - Grade 10 3.1 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.1 The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.1.3 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.1 How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.2 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3 Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.1 The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.3.2 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.5 Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.1 What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.2 Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.6 Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.1 The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.3 Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.6.4 Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.6.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51 3.7 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.2 Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.1 Groups in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.2 Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 III CHEMICAL CHANGE 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle – Grade 10 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

Subjects:

  • Science > General
  • Science > Chemistry

Education Levels:

  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10

Keywords:

student-facing

Language:

English

Access Privileges:

Members

License Deed:

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

Collections:

None
Update Standards?

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh1.a: Science

Exhibit the above traits in their own scientific activities.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh1.b: Science

Recognize that different explanations often can be given for the same evidence.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh1.c: Science

Explain that further understanding of scientific problems relies on the design and execution of new experiments which may reinforce or weaken opposing explanations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh2.a: Science

Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh2.b: Science

Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh2.c: Science

Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.a: Science

Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.b: Science

Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.c: Science

Collect, organize and record appropriate data.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.d: Science

Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.e: Science

Develop reasonable conclusions based on data collected.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh3.f: Science

Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against other available information.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh4.a: Science

Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh4.b: Science

Use technology to produce tables and graphs.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh4.c: Science

Use technology to develop, test, and revise experimental or mathematical models.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh5.a: Science

Trace the source on any large disparity between estimated and calculated answers to problems.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh5.b: Science

Consider possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh5.c: Science

Recognize the relationship between accuracy and precision.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh5.d: Science

Express appropriate numbers of significant figures for calculated data, using scientific notation where appropriate.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh5.e: Science

Solve scientific problems by substituting quantitative values, using dimensional analysis and/or simple algebraic formulas as appropriate.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh6.a: Science

Write clear, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh6.b: Science

Write clear, coherent accounts of current scientific issues, including possible alternative interpretations of the data.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh6.c: Science

Use data as evidence to support scientific arguments and claims in written or oral presentations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh6.d: Science

Participate in group discussions of scientific investigation and current scientific issues.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh7.a: Science

The universe is a vast single system in which the basic principles are the same everywhere.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh7.b: Science

Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh7.c: Science

From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh7.d: Science

Hypotheses often cause scientists to develop new experiments that produce additional data.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh7.e: Science

Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.a: Science

Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.b: Science

Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including possible sources of bias in their investigations? hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.c: Science

Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.d: Science

The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.e: Science

The ultimate goal of science is to develop an understanding of the natural universe which is free of biases.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh8.f: Science

Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.a.1: Science

Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.a.2: Science

Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.a.3: Science

Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.1: Science

Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.2: Science

Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.3: Science

Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.4: Science

Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.5: Science

Examine author?s purpose in writing.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.b.6: Science

Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.c.1: Science

Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.c.2: Science

Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.c.3: Science

Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.d.1: Science

Explore life experiences related to subject area content.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.d.2: Science

Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related.

SCI.9-12.C.SCSh9.d.3: Science

Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.a: Science

Relate the role of nuclear fusion in producing essentially all elements heavier than helium.

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.b: Science

Identify substances based on chemical and physical properties.

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.c: Science

Predict formulas for stable ionic compounds (binary and tertiary) based on balance of charges.

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.d.1: Science

Ionic compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.d.2: Science

Covalent compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SCI.9-12.C.SC1.d.3: Science

Acidic compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.a.1: Science

Synthesis

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.a.2: Science

Decomposition

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.a.3: Science

Single Replacement

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.a.4: Science

Double Replacement

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.a.5: Science

Combustion

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.b: Science

Experimentally determine indicators of a chemical reaction specifically precipitation, gas evolution, water production, and changes in energy to the system.

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.c.1: Science

Empirical/molecular formulas,

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.c.2: Science

Mass, moles and molecules relationships,

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.c.3: Science

Molar volumes of gases.

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.d: Science

Identify and solve different types of stoichiometry problems, specifically relating mass to moles and mass to mass.

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.e: Science

Demonstrate the conceptual principle of limiting reactants.

SCI.9-12.C.SC2.f: Science

Explain the role of equilibrium in chemical reactions.

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.a: Science

Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.b: Science

Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atom?s chemical properties.

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.c: Science

Explain the relationship of the proton number to the element?s identity.

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.d: Science

Explain the relationship of isotopes to the relative abundance of atoms of a particular element.

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.e: Science

Compare and contrast types of chemical bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent).

SCI.9-12.C.SC3.f: Science

Relate light emission and the movement of electrons to element identification.

SCI.9-12.C.SC4.a: Science

Use the Periodic Table to predict periodic trends including atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity of various elements.

SCI.9-12.C.SC4.b: Science

Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.

SCI.9-12.C.SC5.a: Science

Demonstrate the effects of changing concentration, temperature, and pressure on chemical reactions.

SCI.9-12.C.SC5.b: Science

Investigate the effects of a catalyst on chemical reactions and apply it to everyday examples.

SCI.9-12.C.SC5.c: Science

Explain the role of activation energy and degree of randomness in chemical reactions.

SCI.9-12.C.SC6.a: Science

Compare and contrast atomic/molecular motion in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.

SCI.9-12.C.SC6.b: Science

Collect data and calculate the amount of heat given off or taken in by chemical or physical processes.

SCI.9-12.C.SC6.c: Science

Analyzing (both conceptually and quantitatively) flow of energy during change of state (phase).

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.a.1: Science

Observe factors that effect the rate at which a solute dissolves in a specific solvent,

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.a.2: Science

Express concentrations as molarities,

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.a.3: Science

Prepare and properly label solutions of specified molar concentration,

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.a.4: Science

Relate molality to colligative properties.

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.b.1: Science

Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Bases

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.b.2: Science

Strong vs. weak acids/bases in terms of percent dissociation

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.b.3: Science

Hydronium ion concentration

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.b.4: Science

pH

SCI.9-12.C.SC7.b.5: Science

Acid-Base neutralization
Curriki Rating
On a scale of 0 to 3
3
On a scale of 0 to 3

This resource was reviewed using the Curriki Review rubric and received an overall Curriki Review System rating of 3, as of 2017-02-02.

Component Ratings:


Standards Alignment: 3
Subject Matter: 3
Support Steaching: 3
Assessments Quality: 3
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Curriki Review System

This resource received a 3* rating because it is part of the larger resource Chemistry, which received a rating of 3-Exemplary in the Curriki Review System. You can learn more about this larger resource by reading its review and comments.

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