Type:

E-book, Full Course

Description:

This folder contains 5 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These chapters come from Chemistry sub-topics such as Matters and Material, Chemical Change, and Chemical Systems but cover only chapters relevant to Grade 12. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS II MATTER AND MATERIALS 9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12 9.1 What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.2 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 9.3 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.1 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.2 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.4.3 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9.6 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7.1 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 9.7.2 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9.7.5 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.6 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9.7.9 The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9.8.1 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 9.9 Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 9.9.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12 10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 III CHEMICAL CHANGE 16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 IV CHEMICAL SYSTEMS 23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12 23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442 23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Subjects:

  • Science > General
  • Science > Chemistry

Education Levels:

  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12

Keywords:

student-facing

Language:

English

Access Privileges:

Members

License Deed:

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

Collections:

Science Collection
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Curriki Rating
On a scale of 0 to 3
3
On a scale of 0 to 3

This resource was reviewed using the Curriki Review rubric and received an overall Curriki Review System rating of 3, as of 2016-09-30.

Component Ratings:


Standards Alignment: 3
Subject Matter: 3
Assessments Quality: 3
Instructional Quality: 3
member-name
Janet Pinto
October 11, 2016
member-name
Afan Azam Khattak
October 11, 2016
Bakwas
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Curriki Review System

This resource received a 3* rating because it is part of the larger resource Chemistry, which received a rating of 3-Exemplary in the Curriki Review System. You can learn more about this larger resource by reading its review and comments.

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