Type:

Unit

Description:

This folder contains 7 chapters from the FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) Chemistry textbook. FHSST is a project that aims to provide free science and mathematics textbooks for Grades 10 to 12 science learners. The project was initiated by young South African scientists, and now brings together scientists from around the world who are willing to contribute to the writing of the books. These Chemical Change chapters are to be used in grades 10 through 12. Below is a complete Table of Contents for this section. This resource is part of the FHSST Chemistry collection. TABLE OF CONTENTS III CHEMICAL CHANGE 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11 13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237 13.4 Molecules and compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11 14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11 15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12 16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12 17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Subjects:

  • Science > General
  • Science > Chemistry

Education Levels:

  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12

Keywords:

student-facing

Language:

English

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On a scale of 0 to 3

This resource was reviewed using the Curriki Review rubric and received an overall Curriki Review System rating of 3, as of -0001-11-30.

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This resource received a 3* rating because it is part of the larger resource Chemistry, which received a rating of 3-Exemplary in the Curriki Review System. You can learn more about this larger resource by reading its review and comments.

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