Mathematical, physical, and computational tools are used to search for and explain core scientific concepts and principles.
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific explanations.
Interpretation and manipulation of evidence-based models are used to build and critique arguments/explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to pose theories.
Revisions of predictions and explanations are based on systematic observations, accurate measurements, and structured data/evidence.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Logically designed investigations are needed in order to generate the evidence required to build and refine models and explanations.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Mathematical tools and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Empirical evidence is used to construct and defend arguments.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Scientific reasoning is used to evaluate and interpret data patterns and scientific conclusions.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations.
Refinement of understandings, explanations, and models occurs as new evidence is incorporated.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Data and refined models are used to revise predictions and explanations.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Science is a practice in which an established body of knowledge is continually revised, refined, and extended as new evidence emerges.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others' ideas, observations, and experiences.
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking public.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged, and by the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.
Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical properties.
In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.
Solids, liquids, and gases may dissolve to form solutions. When combining a solute and solvent to prepare a solution, exceeding a particular concentration of solute will lead to precipitation of the solute from the solution. Dynamic equilibrium occurs in saturated solutions. Concentration of solutions can be calculated in terms of molarity, molality, and percent by mass.
Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.
Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial to biological processes, from the laboratory to the environment.
Relate the pH scale to the concentrations of various acids and bases.
An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds they tend to form.
A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.
Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Gas particles move independently and are far apart relative to each other. The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the direction of disorder or entropy.
Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Heating increases the energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.
Account for any trends in the melting points and boiling points of various compounds.
The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).
Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into energy.
Describe the products and potential applications of fission and fusion reactions.
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates. Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.
Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.