The JPAS Arts Adventure Series provides low cost, full length performances to students K-12 in a “field trip” format. The series is enhanced by a fully researched and illustrated Study Companion which integrates core subjects such as language arts, mathematics and science with the arts, preparing the teacher and student for a more enjoyable cultural experience. Our companions are also made available gratis to educators via our website, http://www.jpas.org/arts-adventure-series-study-guides/.
This Companion begins with Background. Becoming Mary Poppins P. L.
Travers, Walt Disney, and the making of a myth explores the literal history
of Mary Poppins—the life an inspiration of author P.L. Travers. This section
is followed by a series of arts-integrated lesson plans.
Mary Poppins Set Design: Curves, Angles and New Orleans Gothic
Revival expands on students’ understanding of shapes by exploring them
through the lenses of JPAS Mary Poppins set designs and architecture.
Mary Poppins Screeving Narratives: Family Odysseys guides students
as they learn about screevers, the artist that developed the screevings
(chalk drawings) for the film Mary Poppins, discuss the idea of odyssey,
develop their own narrative descriptive essay about a family odyssey and
create their own screeves to illustrate their essay. The article The World’s
First Female Pavement Artist (1874-1934) follows this lesson and
provides opportunities for lesson extensions. Fantastic Dreams Are Made
of Strong Elastic expands on what students learn in Mary Poppins
Screeving Narrative Essays: Family Odysseys by exploring the history
of the artists of Jackson Square and a contemporary international screeving
project (chalk drawings) that began in New Orleans. This lesson also gives
students opportunities to develop their own Wishes into Reality narrative
essay and create their own screeves to illustrate their essay.
This Companion concludes with the article Exclusive: Disney developing new
original musical featuring Mary Poppins; Rob Marshall to direct and a list of
additional resources educators can use to prepare their students for the JPAS
production of Mary Poppins.
Adapted from the film of the same, this heartwarming musical features seventeen Irving Berlin songs and a book by David Ives and Paul Blake. Veterans Bob Wallace and Phil Davis have a successful song-and-dance act after World War II. With romance in mind, the two follow a duo of beautiful singing sisters en route to their Christmas show at a Vermont lodge, which just happens to be owned by Bob and Phil\'s former army commander. The dazzling score features well known standards including Blue Skies, I Love A Piano, How Deep Is the Ocean and the perennial favorite, White Christmas. An uplifting musical great for the Holiday Season! The musical stage adaptation of White Christmas premiered in San Francisco in 2004 followed by productions in Boston, Buffalo, Los Angeles, Detroit, Louisville and the United Kingdom. The Broadway production opened on November 23, 2008 at the Marquis Theater and ran for 53 performances earning two Tony Award nominations. The musical was revived at the Marquis Theater for the 2009 Christmas season. White Christmas is a story of philanthropy and hope, a story of friends who use their talents to assist a friend in need. In the story, the four main characters, Bob Wallace, Phil Davis, Betty Haynes and Judy Haynes take the train from Florida to Vermont. All four characters are professional performers. Bob Wallace and Phil Davis are also war veterans who fought together during World War Two. Betty and Judy Haynes are sisters who perform together every winter at The Columbia Inn in Vermont. Bob and Phil accompany Betty and Judy to Vermont. When they arrive at The Columbia Inn Bob and Phil discover the inn is owned by General Henry Waverly, the general they served under during World War II. They also learn that the inn is on the verge of bankruptcy, due to lack of customers and snow. Bob Wallace, Phil Davis, Betty Haynes and Judy Haynes decide to use their singing and dancing talents to produce a show that will raise money for the financially struggling inn. Additionally, Bob and Phil reach out to all General Waverly’s former troops to invite them to support the general and attend the show. The Background section of this Companion includes information on Irving Berlin’s inspiration for the song White Christmas, information on the film and the musical theater production of the same name, and information on a special exhibit on Bob Hope currently on display in The National World War II Museum located in New Orleans.
Bing Crosby and Bob Hope performed frequently together. Although Bob Hope was never considered for a role in White Christmas, he and Bing Crosby are both mentioned in the lyrics of one of the songs in the show. The song “Gee, I Wish I Was Back In The Army\" contains the lyric, \"Jolson, Hope And Benny all for free\". This is a reference to the three wartime entertainers: Al Jolson, Bob Hope and Jack Benny. The original words were \"Crosby, Hope and Jolson all for free\", but the lyric was changed because with Bing Crosby in the cast of White Christmas the original lyric would break the fourth wall. Bob Hope is included in this Companion for his long-time collaboration with White Christmas cast member Bing Crosby, his involvement in WWII and for his philanthropic efforts directly related to WWII. A Penny War is a friendly competition and a way everyone can get involved in philanthropy. In White Christmas: The Season of Giving, students will explore the story of White Christmas and its themes of giving, philanthropy and hope. During this exploration they will discuss the story and its connection to philanthropy. They will use this exploration to undertake their own philanthropic project (a Penny War,) engage at least one other class in the project, and explore mathematical concepts of >, =, and < and graphing (bar graphs, circle graphs, box-and-whisker plots and scatterplots.) They will use this exploration of mathematical concepts to compare and contrast the progress of the two classes throughout the course of the Penny War. AND they will use the proceeds they raise during their philanthropic project support a cause of their choosing. In the story White Christmas snow is a contributing factor to the Columbia Inn’s financial difficulties because it is ubiquitous. It impedes travel and prevents customers from visiting the Inn. As ubiquitous as the lace of snowflakes that cover the Vermont countryside for a good portion of the year, the lacy ironwork designs that decorate the doorways, balconies and staircases across New Orleans and many of the surrounding parishes are ubiquitous. In addition, the lace of snowflakes and the lacy ironwork designs have something in common: geometry and geometric patterns. In Symmetry: Lace and Snow students will learn how temperature is a factor in the development of the designs of snowflakes, investigate the germ of ice crystals (the hexagon,) discover the geometric patterns found in snowflakes, have the opportunity to further explore geometric patterns in three types of snowflakes: plane crystals, rimed snow crystals and irregular particles, compare and contrast these three types of snowflakes to five Adinkra symbols: twin crocodiles, spider’s web, fern, the “king of Adinkra symbols” and the staff of life and create their own lace designs inspired by these explorations. To further connect their investigations and discoveries students will develop written descriptions of the lace designs they create. To develop their writing, students will use an order of adjectives/list of adjectives review sheet as an additional source of inspiration. AN EXTENTION: Symmetry: Lace and Snow is a follow up to the designs students created using the White Christmas Symmetry: Lace and Snow graph paper. Students will investigate geometric patterns further by expressing designs as a sequence of numbers.
This Study Companion begins by following the trail of Romeo and Juliet to its original origins. Next, we venture into the basis for West Side Story with an investigation of Puerto Rico and its history and connection to the United States. This is followed by an overview of Hispanic culture in Louisiana that includes recent history. Lessons included in this companion provide students with opportunities to view this story through new angels and become more familiar with culture and how it shapes society. Rivalries and Resolutions guides students in a comparison of Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story. This comparison leads to the opportunity to create a new story, possibly with a different ending. In The Cultures of Us, students will have opportunities to learn about the cultures of their classmates, which may either be the same or different from their own, and create a work of art to express what they learn. Portraits of Our Region offers ways to use a digital camera or a hand-held device to learn about the broad spectrum of Hispanic identity and how the environment of a region influences the culture of the people that live in that region.
Seussical JR. provides wonderful creative opportunities to explore English language arts, science and math in a whole new way. This Study Companion begins with the stories behind the stories—a look at the personal inspirations of Theodor Seuss Geisel. This includes an overview of some of the ideas behind the pantheon of characters that populated his artwork and books, information about his artistic style and concludes with an overview of Seussical JR. Dr. Seuss was keenly aware of the many cultural and artistic movements which took shape throughout his career. In fact, his hometown of Springfield, Massachusetts hosted one of this country’s first surrealist exhibitions, which no doubt had a lifelong impact on Seuss. One of his works, Myopic Woman, from his “Midnight Drawings” (personal art he create just for pleasure,) is unmistakably Seuss, but at the same time is a nod and a wink to cubists Picasso and Braque, as well as surrealists Miro, Magritte, and Dali. Many of the paintings Theodor Seuss Geisel created in the 1930s and 40s use an artistic element derived from his most successful work as a commercial illustrator. This period, known as Geisel’s “Deco Period,” refers to his instinctive use of saturated black backgrounds, combined with Art Deco elements often found within the architecture of Seuss’s artworks. Lesson plans will give students opportunities to explore the complexities, linguistic and mathematical, that were used to create many a Dr. Seuss flight of fancy. OVER THE RIVER AND THROUGH THE WOODS: Entering a Seussical Landscape provides students with several ways of viewing the creatures that cavort through Seussical environments. These explorations will include the science behind the inspiration often found in the messages of his work as well as Theodor Seuss Geisel’s personal inspirations—Seuss’ fanciful collection of creatures and locations were informed by real life environments, particularly the park and the zoo near his childhood home. As an example, drawings of Horton the Elephant meandering along streams in the Jungle of Nool mirror the watercourses in Springfield\'s Forest Park from the time period when Dr. Seuss was a child. OH THE PLACES YOU COULD GO expands students’ understanding of shapes like triangles by exploring them through the lens of Dr. Seuss. Theodor Seuss Geisel took every opportunity to reshape our perspective, both through thought-provoking stories and mind-bending imagery. He transformed the commonplace into flights of fancy designed to intrigue and inspire a new way of looking at the world. This lesson will give students the opportunity to do the same thing—use math concepts to develop fanciful and intriguing landscapes. JPAS graphic design of Seussical promo image created by Joshua Frederick.
The Lessons in this Companion will give students opportunities to reflect on sections from the script of Funny Girl as well as events within their own lives. The real-life Fanny Brice did not conform to the prevailing notion of feminine beauty. Instead, she tenaciously held on to her conviction that being different was not only ok, it was what would make her a star. In Funny Girl: the Ratios of FACE, PART 1 students will explore a section of the JPAS production of Funny Girl that highlights the real-life Fanny Brice’s beliefs about appearance and individuality. They will use this exploration to consider their own unique appearance and individuality. To deepen this exploration, they will learn about symmetry and use their understanding of polygons and quadrant graphing to make a symmetrically balanced composition—a self-portrait. They will consider the self-portrait they create and their own personal traits, something that makes them “beautiful,” and, emulating the writers of the script for Funny Girl, develop a metaphor to describe this personal characteristic or trait. In Funny Girl: the Ratios of FACE, PART 2 students will build on concepts they developed in PART 1 by further reflecting on their own gifts. This lesson will review a segment from Fanny Brice’s autobiography and compare it to the text of the script for Funny Girl. Fanny Brice had focus, on her unique abilities and where they were going to take her. In this lesson, students will continue to reflect on a quote and a song from the play that illustrate both Fanny Brice’s belief in herself and where those gifts were going to take her. Students will have the opportunity to further reflect on their own gifts and the steps they will need to take to be successful in the future.
This JPAS production was named Best Ballet Presentation of 2015 at the Big Easy Classical Arts Awards. The story of The Nutcracker has been adapted several times. The original story, “Nußknacker und Mausekönig” or \"The Nutcracker and the King of Mice,\" was written in German by E.T.A. Hoffman. It was published in 1816 in an anthology called Kinder-Mährchen (Children’s Stories,) which also included tales by Carl Wilhelm Contessa and Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué. Ivan Vsevolozhsky and Marius Petipa adapted Hoffmann\'s story from German to Russian. They also adapted it from a story to dance; Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote the music. Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov designed the dances. The Nutcracker was first performed as a ballet at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg, Russia, on 18 December 1892. Although Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s inaugural performance of “The Nutcracker” ballet was not hailed as a success, it has since become the most widely performed dance production of all time. In New Orleans and Baton Rouge alone at least 10 productions of this holiday classic on average are presented each year. JPAS continues to collaborate with esteemed choreographer Diane L. Carney on our production of The Nutcracker. This Study Companion begins with history. This section includes a history of the Nutcracker Ballet, a history of ballet in New Orleans and a history of Harvey Hysell, notable New Orleans choreographer and Artistic Director of Ballet Hysell. Throughout the years, Ballet Hysell School trained many leading artists, including Rosalie O’Connor (American Ballet Theatre), Mireille Hassenboehler (Houston Ballet), and Devon Carney (associate artistic director, Cincinnati Ballet). The lessons in this Companion enable students to develop a deeper understanding of dance, regardless of their dance ability. The Nutcracker: A Hero’s Tale guides students as they reflect on what they already know about The Nutcracker and then introduces variations on the Nutcracker story filled with concepts they may not be familiar with. This includes exploring The Nutcracker as a Hero’s Journey, a pattern of narrative identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, dance, storytelling and myth. Joseph Campbell describes the typical adventure of The Hero as the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilization. The Science and Math of Dance allows students to explore what they already believe about dance, including explaining the reasons for their opinions. They will learn ballet vocabulary as they investigate “The Land of the Sweets;” this investigation will include discovering the science and math that coincides with ballet terminology (the science and math needed to effectively execute ballet movements.) Students will document what they learn by developing a series of sketches. They will conclude by reviewing their original opinions about dance and reflecting on their opinions have/have not changed. This lesson is followed by an article published in YALE Scientific that reflects on dancers’ ability to spin without getting dizzy. JPAS Coloring Pages are also included for our younger students; they were developed from production stills taken of the JPAS performance.
Before Peter Pan was a stage play, it was a book. The character Peter Pan first appeared in a novel called The Little White Bird, published in 1902. The novel introduced Peter Pan in one of the chapters, titled Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. The character of Peter Pan was so popular J.M. Barrie decided to write a play just for this character. The play, titled Peter Pan, or the Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up opened on December 27, 1904 at the Duke of York\'s Theatre in London, England. J.M. Barrie’s play was very popular, so popular Barrie’s publishers decided to extract the chapters from The Little White Bird that featured Peter Pan and republish them as a book titled Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. This book was so popular J.M. Barrie wrote another in 1911 titled Peter Pan and Wendy. This adaptation of the story is the one we know today as the book Peter Pan. Since these first versions created by J.M Barrie, Peter Pan has been adapted many times, including as the popular Disney movie (1953,) Steven Spielberg\'s Hook (1991,) the Warner Brothers’ film Pan (2015,) two animated T.V. series Peter Pan & the Pirates (1990) and The New Adventures of Peter Pan (2012,) and several plays including Broadway’s Peter Pan (1954) and Peter Pan the British Musical (2009.) The lessons in this Companion will guide students as they students think objectively, use logic to create a sequence and use order to develop strategy. Students will also use a map Neverland to learn about number lines and Cartesian coordinates learn how Cartesian coordinates can be used to read maps and locate things in a setting and use Cartesian coordinates to identify and plot different locations on their map. Students will also analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas, explain what the focus and directrix of a parabola are, describe and create different types of parabolas and use their curiosity and analysis of mathematical relationships into a flip book and a stop motion animation.
JPAS Theatre Kids! presents Once On This Island. Adapted from the celebrated Broadway musical, this rousing Calypso-flavored tale follows one small girl who finds love in a world of prejudice. Through almost non-stop song and dance, this full-hearted musical tells the story of Ti Moune, a peasant girl who rescues and falls in love with Daniel, a wealthy boy from the other side of her island. When Daniel is returned to his people, the fantastical gods who rule the island guide Ti Moune on a quest that will test the strength of her love against the powerful forces of prejudice, hatred and even death. Gason Ayisyin generously provided insight on Haitian culture and history for the lessons in this Companion. An accomplished New Orleans-based photographer Gason Ayisyin immigrated to the United States as a young child from Haiti. He has done extensive research on the customs and culture of his country. More about Gason Ayisyin and his work can be found here: https://catalystcollective.weebly.com/gason-ayisyin.html The musical Once On This Island is adapted from the 1985 novel My Love, My Love; or, The Peasant Girl by Rosa Guy, a writer from Trinidad. Rosa Guy received several awards for her writing, including the Coretta Scott King Award, The New York Times Outstanding Book of the Year citation and the American Library Association\'s Best Book Award. For My Love, My Love; or, The Peasant Girl Ms. Guy reimagined Hans Christian Andersen\'s fairy tale The Little Mermaid, setting it on an island in the Caribbean. Adapted from Ms. Guy’s novel, Once On This Island takes place on the island of Haiti, the Jewel of the Antilles. The population of Haiti is almost entirely descended from formerly enslaved Africans. In Haiti, colonial rule and enslavement were synonymous.
Haiti won its independence from France on November 18, 1803 at the Battle of Vertieres, the last battle for Haitian Independence. Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared independence and restored the country’s original name Ayiti, or Haiti, on January 1, 1804, making it the second country in the Americas, after the United States, to free itself from colonial rule. Ayiti or Haiti was the original name given to the entire island by the Tiano, the indigenous people of the island. Some writings say the meaning is “Mountainous Land.” Tianos would translate the name to say “The land that allows you to go within, so that you can access the best/highest you.” The background and lessons in the Study Companion highlight the production of Once On This Island recently featured on Broadway. To develop the designs for the Broadway production of Once On This Island Director Michael Arden and Costume Designer Clint Ramos traveled to Haiti to investigate the impact of recent historical events on the Haitian people and their social customs. Haiti is recovering from two tremendous disasters, an earth quake that devastated the country in 2010 and the ravages Hurricane Matthew left in its wake in 2016. Both Mr. Arden and Mr. Ramos were struck by the resilience of the Haitian people in the aftermath of these disasters, particularly in evidence in their social custom of transformation. They saw this custom of transformation everywhere. Make use of everything that is available, nothing is discarded. Instead, it is transformed into something that can be used again. Mr. Arden and Mr. Ramos decided a critical piece of storytelling would be to incorporate this resilience into the designs for Once On This Island. Theatrical designers use a variety of methods to develop designs. These methods often include extensive research, research of social customs, historical events and time periods, movements in art (ie: realism, impressionism, cubism, etc.,) and specific artists that created work during these art movements. Costume and set designer Clint Ramos derived his inspiration from reality and the fantastical, crafting his costume designs for Once On This Island from the intersection of Haitian history and mythology. Haitian deities or Loas/Lwas have their origins in indigenous Tiano traditions and African traditions, particularly the traditions of the Edo of Benin, Asante in Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria. Haitians believe Loas/Lwas are guiding spirits similar to angels. Each Haitian Loas/Lwas has a symbol that represents them. Their symbols, or Vévés, are derived from West African symbols, including Adinkra symbols developed by the Asante in Ghana. In Characters and Symbols students will students will become familiar with the plot and characters of Once On This Island, look at a map of the Caribbean to identify both where author Rosa Guy was from and identify the setting for Once on This Island, look at a map of Africa to identify the countries where some elements of Haitian culture originated, learn about four Adinkra symbols, their meanings and possible connection to the Haitian deities or Loas/Lwas featured in Once On This Island and choose one of the Adinkra symbols to color.
In Measurement, Ratio, Proportion and Costume Design students will investigate the ideas behind Clint Ramos’ costume designs for the Broadway production of Once On This Island, learn about local Louisiana efforts to transform trash and natural things found in the environment and develop their own costume designs using measurement and recycled materials. (NOTE: this lesson can build off of the cultural investigated in Characters and Symbols. This lesson is designed to be taught over two days. The first day focuses on researching background information on the costumes designed for the Broadway production of Once On This Island. The second day, inspired by this research, students will create their own costume designs. Prior to the second day students will need to collect recycled materials as they will use these materials to create their costume designs. ) Lyrics, Map Making and Ti Moune’s Journey guides students as they explore the journey of the main character in Once On This Island and use Cartesian coordinates to invent possible paths for this journey. In both the novel My Love, My Love; or, The Peasant Girl and the stage musical Once On This Island Ti Moune, a beautiful young woman, is the protagonist. Ti Moune is an adventurous, compassionate and courageous young woman who was saved from a flood as a small child. She believes she has been chosen by the Haitian Gods for a special destiny. Ti Moune goes on a journey in pursuit of this destiny. In Haitian tradition, Haitian deities or Loas/Lwas are guiding spirits similar to angels. In this lesson students will read the opening scene of Once On This Island, learn about some of the characters, investigate the lyrics for the song Mama Will Provide (the song of Ti Moune’s journey,) read about aspects of Haitian society that relate to the musical, look at maps of Haiti (population and topographical,) review Cartesian coordinates and use Cartesian coordinates to plot different points on a map of Haiti. Students will then use Cartesian coordinates to identify and plot different locations on their map to create possible routes for Ti Moune’s journey from Fort Liberté in Nord Est/Northern Haiti to Pétion-Ville, a wealthy suburb southeast of Port-au-Prince. In Once On This Island and Resilience students will investigate the ideas behind Clint Ramos’ costume designs for the Broadway production of Once On This Island, reflect on what it means to be resilient, and create an essay that chronicles either a personal event or a time in history when there was a group of people who were able to become “their best/highest self,” able to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something bad happened. Students will reflect on John James Audubon’s connection to New Orleans in Haiti and John James Audubon, learn about Audubon’s connection to the setting for the musical Once On This Island and complete a color sheet inspired by the work of this famed naturalist.
Tarzan first swung onto the scene in 1912. Edgar Rice Burroughs initially published Tarzan of the Apes as a series of chapters in several issues of All-Story Magazine. The chapters were so popular they were assembled and published as a book in 1914. Following the publication of the book Tarzan’s popularity grew so much, it led to numerous sequels. The original story and the sequels were further adapted for film and television. In 1999, Walt Disney Studios released Tarzan, an animated adaptation. Tarzan the Musical is adapted from that Disney film. This Study Companion provides opportunities to reflect on the story of Tarzan from many different angles. Tarzan in the Jungle:
Plants and Biomes begins with a discussion of Waiting for This Moment (the song that introduces the character of Jane in Tarzan the Musical ) and guides students as they learn the names of the plants in the song, review where these plants come from, learn about biomes in different parts of the world, review longitude and latitude in map-reading and then create a map that includes plants they have studied. Comparing the Past and the Present: Tarzan in the Jungle investigates a writer’s point of view: how stories change over time and how stories reflect the opinions, views, expectations and truths that are woven into the fabric of the culture the story comes from. The Geometry of Flight, Tarzan and Leonardo da Vinci explores the lines and angels of flight trajectory. The JPAS production of Tarzan involves lots of flying, sometimes, flying 8 performers at a time. Flight entails lift and drag, friction and flow—all three of Newton’s Laws of Motion. What is less commonly understood is that flight also involves shapes (geometry.) In preschool, students learn about shapes. They learn how to identify them by appearance. As an example, a shape made of straight lines with four equal sides is a square, a shape made of three straight lines is a triangle, a shape made of curved lines is a circle and so forth. In this lesson, students will expand on their understanding of shapes by exploring them through the lens of actors’ movement on stage (theatrical flying.) Students will have opportunities to consider the way an actor moves on stage when they are flying (the actor’s flight trajectory) by describing a series of angles and by using straight angles, reflex angles, angles around a point. Tarzan Jungle Parkour: Guiding Tarzan Through the Jungle investigates another way the story of Tarzan has been adapted, action figures and games. Students will review game board designs from the 1950’s that were inspired by the story of Tarzan, look at imagery from a modern day Minecraft Tarzan Parkour, an on-line game that is a randomly generated parkour course that can be played with friends or alone, and will work to develop their own Tarzan parkour. To do this, they will explore math concepts (Cartesian Coordinates, perimeter and area) as they design the safest route for Tarzan to navigate the jungle.
Guys and Dolls JR is a JPAS Theatre Kids! production. The JPAS Theatre Kids! program gives children year-round opportunities to participate in theatre, experience the process of putting on a show, as well as learning basic acting techniques and skills. Enrollment is by auditions which are held prior to each show. Theatre Kids! activities give young people a chance to have fun with theatre, creating a lifelong love of the arts. JPAS Theatre Kids! proudly presents 2 musicals per season performed by an all kid cast. Theatre Kids! welcomes children 7-12 years old who want to learn more about theatre and dramatic arts.
Guys and Dolls is subtitled, “A Musical Fable of Broadway.” Set in Damon Runyon’s mythical New York, Guys and Dolls creates an idealized version of New York in which the diverse population of this vast city, including hardened criminals and puritanical evangelists, are magically able to come together, get along, and even fall in love. Runyon was mostly a short story writer, and it was producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin who first had the idea to string together Runyon’s shorter tales into a full-length musical. Some of the stories drawn upon most heavily include “The Idyll of Sarah Brown” and “Blood Pressure,” but sources for certain characters and elements of the story can be found throughout Runyon’s work.
This Study Companion provides opportunities to reflect on “Guys and Dolls” and other writing by Damon Runyon from many different angles. Damon Runyon was known for his details, his style of narration, and his approach to crafting characters. Runyon wrote his famed stories based on the colorful characters he observed, always describing the small details and perspectives, a style that other reporters did not use. He wrote using Historical Present, using verbs in the present tense to describe the past. His characters had colorful names like Cheesecake Ike or Nicely Nicely Johnson. They were often fatalistic. And they spoke in vernacular, vocabulary particular to a region or group of people. Damon Runyon: Creating Characters in the Historical Present expands on students’ understanding of the Historical Present and character development through the creation of a descriptive essay written in the style of “Guys and Dolls” author Damon Runyon. Damon Runyon’s New York, Our New Orleans moves from writing students’ created in Damon Runyon: Creating Characters in the Historical Present to explore setting “the city,” as a character in and of itself. Students will have an opportunity to develop a second descriptive essay written in the style of “Guys and Dolls” author Damon Runyon. Set Design: Measurement, Estimation, Fractions and Ratios begins with images of the set design for the JPAS production of “Guys and Dolls.” Students will investigate the inspiration behind this set design—New York’s Manhattan in the 1930’s and consider architecture in its simplest terms—shapes students already know how to identify (rectangles, squares and triangles.) Students will also delve into New Orleans architecture (AND be introduced to words such as “estimation,” “measurement,” “unit,” “length,” “fraction,” “ratio,” “ color wheel,” “primary color,” “secondary color,” “complementary color” and “analogous color.”) Additionally, once students have investigated the shapes incorporated into the JPAS set design and the shapes incorporated into local New Orleans architecture, they will have an opportunity to create their own inspired architectural designs.
A Few Other Ideas…provide even more opportunities to reflect on the math that can be found in Runyon’s world of “Guys and Dolls.” At the beginning of “Guys and Dolls,” Nathan Detroit tries to think up a bet to place with Sky Masterson that he cannot loose, a bet about food. Nathan wants to make a bet with Sky about a popular restaurant: what does it sell more of, cheesecake or strudel? Nathan has instructed his boys to get the lowdown on how much cheesecake and how much strudel is sold at a popular restaurant. With the advance information, Nathan attempts to sucker Sky into a bet for $1000. Explore cheesecake and strudel in New Orleans. Make a cheesecake (and explore more math related to estimation and measurement.) Dig even deeper--Guys and Dolls JR. opens with a bustling street scene alive with Times Square, New York characters. Some gamblers enter and trade tips about different horses that they are considering placing bets on from the daily scratch sheet (\"Fugue for Tinhorns\"). As the gamblers finish their pitch, Miss Sarah Brown and the Mission Band enter, playing a hymn (\"Follow the Fold\"). She warns the gamblers of the evils of their ways, but her sermon falls on deaf ears, so she and the band exit dejectedly. Lt. Brannigan, of the New York Police Department, enters and warns the gamblers not to try to organize their crap game. Nathan enters and, after Brannigan exits, complains that there is nowhere for the crap game to take place unless he can come up with $1000 to rent the Biltmore Garage.
Craps is a game where players take turns rolling dice. Gamblers make bets on the probability that a specific event will occur—that when they roll the dice, and the dice come to a stop, the number will equal a specific number—the number they predict. Explore the math behind gambling—probability and statistics. Probability is the ratio of the number of outcomes in the total number of possible outcomes. Ratios can be used many ways: as a way to combine elements to make something new (as in mixing paint and glue to create printer’s ink,) as a way to describe a group (the ratio of boys to girls in a class,) OR as a way to predict the number of outcomes in a coin toss.
“Caroline or Change” offers opportunities for connection. Two Louisiana families, the Gellman family and the Thibodeaux family are the “Everyman,” average, ordinary people moving through the day-to-day moments of their lives. “Caroline or Change” connects the day-to-day moments of these ordinary people to pivotal moments in United States history. These connections work to personalize and contextualize the social, cultural and political climates that serve as the backdrop for the play.
This Study Companion expands these points of connection by providing opportunities for further consideration of both national and local events occurring during the time period depicted in “Caroline or Change.” In Background students trace how the national and local social, cultural and political climates of the 1960’s have continued to inform and lead to pivotal contemporary moments unfolding currently in United States history. This begins with personal reflections by playwright Tony Kushner about his inspiration for “Caroline or Change” and follows with timelines and news articles that both chronical and connect pivotal moments in United States history and New Orleans history with the prevailing social, cultural and political climates of the time.
The Tony-nominated “Caroline, or Change” includes change... children, families and monuments. Family Portraits gives students opportunities to share stories about their family and learn about the cultures of their classmates, which may either be the same or different from their own, and create an autobiographical work of art to express what is special about the culture of their family. Children Who Changed the World, 1963 leads students on an exploration of how children were involved in the Civil Rights Movement and the Children’s Crusade of 1963. Children Who Changed the World, 2017 provides students with additional opportunities to explore how children have changed the world, during the Civil Rights Movement and in the modern day.
Lake Charles, Louisiana is home to both the Gellman family and the Thibodeaux family. During Act One, In order to cheer her up, Caroline Thibodeaux’s friend Dotty tells Caroline that a group of teenagers took down a statue honoring a Confederate soldier from in front of the courthouse. Caroline doesn\'t know anything about it because she doesn\'t own a television. She isn\'t happy about the news, saying that it will only cause trouble. This story of the removal of the monument is woven throughout the rest of the play. In Reflections on Monuments students will have opportunities to explore the importance of monuments, why they are created, learn about the Paper Monuments Project and create their own monument. Monuments: Context and Creation give opportunities to further explore monuments as works of art and how monuments embrace the uniqueness of cultural and national identities and honor heritage, culture and national histories (NOTE: This lesson was originally created as part of a collection of arts lessons; additional lessons from this collection can be found here: https://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/library/k-12-arts-resources)
Disney’s The Lion King, Jr is the story of a journey, physical, personal and creative. This Study Companion investigates this journey by providing opportunities for further consideration of the creative processes Disney used to create the film, how the locations in Kenya, Africa influenced both the designs of the settings and the characters in the story, how culture can journey to influence imagery and how journeys can connect to mathematical concepts that include number lines, graphing and map-making.
Before the Lion King was a stage play, it was an award-winning Disney movie. Lion King Lithographs: Landscape, Setting and Number Lines explores lithographs and other techniques Disney used to design and develop images for his movies, including The Lion King. Nearly twenty minutes of the film were animated at the Disney-MGM Studios. Ultimately, more than 600 artists, animators and technicians contributed to The Lion King over its lengthy production schedule. More than one million drawings were created for the film, including 1,197 hand-painted backgrounds and 119,058 individually colored frames of film. Students will learn about techniques Disney used, compare lengths of objects, investigate how number lines and Cartesian coordinates can pinpoint locations, and explore proportion as they develop an image of a setting/environment found in The Lion King.
In Lion King Graphs and Map Making students will build on what they learn about the number line and Cartesian coordinates in Lion King Lithographs by exploring some of Simba’s journey. Students will look at a map of the area Simba and Nala call home and trace Simba’s journey from The Gorge to The Outlands. Then they will create their own crayon resist maps and use Cartesian coordinates to identify and plot different locations on their map.
Lion King Stories and Journeys builds on these mathematical concepts even further. This lesson guides students as they create new Lion King characters and a new journey for Simba. In Lion King Graphs and Map Making students reviewed the journey called Simba’s Exile by using a map legend to trace the path of the journey on the map. In this lesson, students will review that map and then examine an actual map of Kenya (The Pride Lands are modeled on the Kenyan national park visited by the crew while they were developing the award-winning Disney movie.) Students will learn about how the plot of the Disney movie changed over time—characters originally developed were changed or removed altogether. Students will get acquainted with the Swahili language (many of the characters in the Lion King have names that are Swahili words.) Then students will develop three new animal characters, write a story about an adventure Simba could have had with these three new characters, create a rod puppet for one of the characters and create a map to plot these new adventures.
In Lion King Set Design: Mud Cloth Patterns students will explore the cultural influences behind set designs for the stage play Disney’s Lion King, Jr. Students will view two images of JPAS Lion King set designs by Kristin Blatchford. Designs for the Lion King set incorporate mud cloth patterns from Mali, Africa. The Bamana woman of Mali have been using mud cloth techniques to design and create patterns in cloth for centuries. Bògòlanfini mud cloth patterns incorporate shapes, such as triangles and squares, and repeating patterns. Students will view Discovering Mud Cloth: AN AFRICAN VOICES EXHIBIT, a video created by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Students will compare the shapes and patterns of the mud cloth in the video with the shapes and patterns in the mud cloth Disney’s Lion King, Jr. JPAS set designs. As a class, students will use technology to digitally create a virtual Bògòlanfini mud cloth.
African Symbolism in Local Architecture gives additional opportunities to explore shapes and patterns in African designs. Students view and compare images from West African works of art and New Orleans French Quarter wrought iron. They use this research and their understanding of design elements and principles to examine these motifs and the artists’ exploration of culture through a series of sketches. Students render these sketches into a block print that incorporates Adinkra symbols of West Africa. (NOTE: This lesson was originally created as part of a collection of arts lessons; additional lessons from this collection can be found here: https://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/library/k-12-arts-resources)
Tuck Everlasting is the story of journeys and locations, physical and personal. This Study Companion investigates these journeys by providing opportunities for further consideration of three adaptations of the story: Natalie Babbitt’s book, the Disney film Tuck Everlasting and the musical created by Chris Miller and Nathan Tysen. During these investigations, students will reflect on how the setting influenced the author, the film makers and the creators of the musical and how creating the imagery of a setting can connect to mathematical concepts that include shapes, area and perimeter.
Before Tuck Everlasting was a film or a stage play, it was a book. My Most Beautiful Day: Creating a Song From Life Events familiarizes students with the story Tuck Everlasting through the exploration of the novel by author Natalie Babbitt. Students discuss the idea of adaptation, discuss lyricist Chris Miller’s song “My Most Beautiful Day,” compare the lyrics of Chris Miller’s song to the excerpt of Natalie Babbitt’s novel and then develop their own lyrics from events in their personal lives.
In Everlasting: Inspiring Words students will explore author Natalie Babbitt’s inspiration for the setting of her novel, discuss lyricist Chris Miller’s inspiration for the song “Everlasting,” compare the lyrics of Chris Miller’s song to Robert Frost’s poem “The Road Not Taken,” investigate what inspired Robert Frost to write this poem and compare similarities and differences between the three pieces of writing (the story, the song lyrics and the poem.)
The Forest of Tuck Everlasting: The Scenery Creates the Setting builds on mathematical concepts students learn in preschool: shape recognition and identification. As an example, a shape made of straight lines with four equal sides is a square, a shape made of three straight lines is a triangle, a shape made of straight lines where the sides opposite each other (parallel) are equal is a rectangle and so forth. In this lesson, we will expand on students’ understanding of both shapes and measurement by exploring them through the lens of set design. In this lesson, students will become familiar with Natalie Babbitt’s inspiration for the setting in Tuck Everlasting, learn about JPAS Technical Director Rod Oden and Assistant TD and Tuck Everlasting Scenic Designer Kristin Blatchford’s inspiration for the set of the JPAS production of Tuck Everlasting, investigate real-life forests, a key element of the setting of Tuck, discover how trees adapt to their environment, discuss how set designers use research and math to help them develop designs and use all this background information to create their own design developed from research about the environment of our region.
In The Homes of Tuck Everlasting: The Scenery Creates the Setting students will become familiar with other elements of the setting: the homes of Winnie Foster and Jesse Tuck. Students will further explore JPAS Technical Director Rod Oden and Assistant TD and Tuck Everlasting Scenic Designer Kristin Blatchford’s inspiration for the set of the JPAS production of Tuck Everlasting, investigate and compare the designs of real-life homes, discuss how set designers use research and math to help them develop designs and use all this background information to create their own design developed from research about the different types of homes we find in our region.
New Orleans actor-musician Roland \"Butch\" Caire Jr. stars
in a one-man musical that takes a Christian approach to the legend of
Santa Claus, starting with the childhood of St. Nicholas and emphasizing
that the traditions of Christmas are an outgrowth of Christian love and
giving. Meet Santa after the show. Production is aimed at children from
pre-kindergarten through third grade, though all may enjoy it.
What was St. Nicholas like as a child? How did he become the person
we call Santa Claus? Why is Santa called different names in different
countries? How did stockings by the chimney begin? And just how does
he manage to bring gifts to children all over the world? Most importantly,
he reminds us that the traditions of Christmas are an outgrowth of
Christian love and giving. This critically acclaimed show warms hearts in
kids from 1 to 92.
The Amazing True Story of Santa Claus traverses history and culture to
reflect on the many traditions that are part of the Christmas holiday. This
Study Companion investigates these traditions and provides opportunities
for further consideration of the meaning behind Christmas. During these
investigations, students will reflect on the interactions between family
traditions and settings and how creating the imagery of a setting can
connect to mathematical concepts that include shapes, area and perimeter,
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learn about parts of speech, read a poem well-loved for generations and
investigate the poem’s authorship.
In Exploring Santa Traditions: All in the Family students will learn about
Christmas traditions from other parts of the world, brainstorm about their
own family’s traditions, develop their own narrative descriptive essay about
family traditions, create their own crayon resist to illustrate their essay and
then transform their artwork into a design for a possible set for a production
This lesson also builds on mathematical concepts students learn in
preschool: shape recognition and identification. As an example, a shape
made of straight lines with four equal sides is a square, a shape made
of three straight lines is a triangle, a shape made of straight lines where
the sides opposite each other (parallel) are equal is a rectangle and so
forth. In this lesson, we will expand on students’ understanding of both
shapes and measurement by exploring them through the lens of set design.
In Exploring Santa Traditions: Timeline students will further reflect on
the presence of Santa in the United States, beginning with the first mention
of Santa in an American newspaper in 1773.
The Amazing True Story of Santa Claus: Anagrams for Christmas
guides students as they reflect on another version of the story of Santa (as
told in Phineas and Ferb Christmas Vacation.) Phineas and Ferb
Christmas Vacation incorporates an anagram as a plot devise. Students
will reflect on how the Phineas and Ferb Christmas story uses an
anagram, look at possible ideas for other Christmas anagrams and then
create their own.
In The Amazing True Story of Santa Claus: ‘Twas the Night Before
Christmas Mad Lib students will learn about parts of speech, read a poem
well-loved for generations, ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas, and then
create their own version using JPAS Mad Libs.
’Twas the Night Before Christmas: Moore or Livingston? dives deeper
into this well-known and well-loved poem, investigating its authorship. Was
it really written by Henry Livingston, or someone else?
The musical The Hunchback of Notre Dame is a retelling of Victor Hugo’s epic story of
love. In both Victor Hugo’s novel and the musical adapted from the novel, characters
form opinions about other characters based on appearance. As an example, because
Quasimodo has a deformity, some characters view him as a monster or evil; the name
Quasimodo means “half formed.” As another example, because the gypsies are
wanderers and street performers, some other characters view them as vermin.
In Character Traits: What Makes a Man students will discuss the definitions of character
(both the persona in a novel or musical and the attributes or personal qualities of the
persona,) brain storm about character traits, analyze images of two characters,
Quasimodo the bell ringer and Frollo Archdeacon of Notre Dame Cathedral, share
opinions about these characters’ personal traits (based only on the character’s physical
appearance,) review a description of both characters from the musical and investigate
how these descriptions compare to opinions based only on appearance.
The Towers of Notre Dame familiarizes students with the physical place that inspired
Victor Hugo, Disney animators and Set Designer Adam Koch: Notre Dame Cathedral in
Paris, France. Growing up in Paris, Victor Hugo fell in love with gothic architecture and
with Notre Dame in particular. The first three chapters of his novel The Hunchback of
Notre Dame are devoted to describing gothic architecture of his time in great detail.
When Disney was adapting Hugo’s novel into an animated movie, Disney animators
traveled to Paris to research the building design of Notre Dame in order to develop
imagery for the film. Notre Dame additionally inspired Adam Koch, Set Designer for the
Ogunquit Playhouse production of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. JPAS will be using
the Ogunquit Playhouse set for our Production of The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
Students will have the opportunity to use Notre Dame as inspiration while they work in
teams, architect and builder, to construct their own tower of Notre Dame. To do this,
students will examine Notre Dame Cathedral towers and gargoyles, read an excerpt
from Victor Hugo’s novel, read an interview with The Hunchback of Notre Dame Set
Designer Adam Koch, review concepts in multiplication, division, area and perimeter
and work collaboratively to build a small replica of the top of one of the towers.
In preschool, students learn about shapes. They learn how to identify them by
appearance. As an example, a shape made of straight lines with four equal sides is a
square, a shape made of three straight lines is a triangle, a shape made of
straight lines where the sides opposite each other (parallel) are equal is a rectangle
and so forth. Rose windows, like the one in Notre Dame Cathedral, are based on a
shape, the circle . In this lesson, we will expand on students’ understanding of
shapes, specifically circles, and measurement by exploring them through the lens of an
actual place, Notre Dame in Paris, and investigating the many ways this place was used
as inspiration for storytelling, local architecture and set designs.
Stained Glass: Telling Stories in Pieces is another lesson that familiarizes students with
the physical place that inspired Victor Hugo, Disney animators and Set Designer Adam
Koch: Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. Students will investigate the rose
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window of Notre Dame, stained glass and rose windows in local New Orleans
architecture and use these investigations to create their own rose windows. To do this,
students will learn about stained glass and the history of the rose window in
architecture, examine the rose window of Notre Dame, read an excerpt from Victor
Hugo’s novel, read an interview with The Hunchback of Notre Dame Set Designer
Adam Koch, learn about French influences in local New Orleans stained glass, view
images of local New Orleans architecture that includes rose windows, review
information on symmetry, radius, circumference, diameter and sectors, and use all this
information to create their own rose window.
Describe Your Favorite Place guides students as they explore how the power of personal
voice in writing can be used to shape public opinion. To do this, students investigate
Victor Hugo’s novel, the place that inspired it (Notre Dame Cathedral) and have the
opportunity to think about their favorite place. Students will read articles about Victor
Hugo’s inspiration, read an excerpt from Victor Hugo’s novel The Hunchback of Notre
Dame, review how to write good descriptions and then create their own writing about a
favorite place of theirs.
Honk is based on Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Ugly Duckling.” Play write Anthony
Drewe was attracted to the message of acceptance and understanding from the story of
The Ugly Duckling. He contacted Stiles, with whom he had previously collaborated on
two projects, to write a musical based around the story. They expanded on the original
story, adding many more characters (including a love interest for the main character.)
Hans Christian Andersen’s animal tales are radically different from traditional fables. At
first Andersen dismissed his fairy-tale writing as a \"bagatelle\" and, encouraged by
friends and prominent Danish critics, considered abandoning the genre. But he later
came to believe that the fairy tale would be the \"universal poetry\" of which so many
romantic writers dreamed, the poetic form of the future, which would synthesize folk art
and literature and encompass the tragic and the comic, the naive and the ironic.
In his work, Andersen uses animals to represent different opinions on life in several
stories, such as “The Happy Family,” “The Sprinters,” and “The Dung-Beetle.” The
stories themselves are closer to satirical sketches of human manners than fairy tales for
children. “The Ugly Duckling,” probably Andersen’s best-known story, is one of his many
camouflaged autobiographies, echoing the writer’s much- quoted statement:
“First you must endure a lot, then you get famous.”
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The animals, including the protagonist, possess human traits, views, and emotions,
making the story indeed a poignant account of the road from humiliation through
suffering to well-deserved bliss.
The lessons in this Study Companion connect the search for acceptance and the
discovery of identity with concepts in English language arts, math and science.
Mistaken Identity: Ducks, Swans and Multiplication guides students through Hans
Christian Andersen’s “The Ugly Duckling,” news articles about an incident with a local
swan in New Orleans City Park, all while learning about the “Princess of Polka Dots,”
Yayoi Kusama, one of Japan\'s most prominent living artists. Students explore
connections between visual art and multiplication and create artwork inspired by
Andersen and Kusama.
Comparing Stories: Honk, Are You My Mother? and Stella Luna guides students as
they investigate the plot of Honk and compare it to two other children’s books with
similar themes: Are You My Mother? and Stella Luna.
Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Ugly Duckling” is a story of mistaken identity and selfdiscovery
involving a baby swan and baby ducks in a mix up of heredity and family
acceptance. In The Shapes of Us, students embark on a journey of personal selfdiscovery,
the discovery of how DNA tells a story of heritage. To do this, students will
explore heredity and family awareness through the lenses of mathematical sequences
and shapes. During this exploration, students will compare mitosis and meiosis and
consider mitosis and meiosis as an interconnected sequence of numbers on a number
line. They will imagine the number line as their line of ancestors, imagine their inherited
physical characteristics (hair color, eye color, etc.) as shapes, investigate the work of
artists Betye Saar and Delita Martin, two artists that use shapes and symbols to explore
heritage and compare personal traits of their parents with their own. During this lesson,
students use their understanding of cell division, shapes and their comparisons of
inherited physical traits as references while creating their own assemblage art works
inspired by Betye Saar and Delita Martin. This lesson was taught at Lincoln Elementary
School for the Arts as part of the JPAS Stage Without A Theatre program.
Alice in Wonderland is a ballet in two acts retelling the classic Lewis Carroll story
in the form of dance, set to unforgettable music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Enter
into the majestic setting of the classic tale and see the familiar story come to life in
an all-new way!
In 1995, English National Ballet commissioned a score for a full length ballet,
based on Lewis Carroll’s immortal masterpiece, Alice in Wonderland. The one
stipulation and challenge was for a score to be based on the music of Tchaikovsky.
Carl Davis accepted the challenge and a smash hit was born!
The centre of the score is derived from Tchaikovsky’s Album for the Young. Davis
also drew on Tchaikovsky’s Theatre Music, Tone Poems and Operas, as well as the
beautiful waltz from the Fifth Symphony for The Garden of Living Flowers. This
highly successful production was revived many times, including performances at
the Company’s London Coliseum seasons.
English National Ballet’s Alice in Wonderland is one of many adaptations of
Lewis Carroll’s classic tale. Lewis Carroll was the nom de plume of Charles L.
Dodgson. Born on January 27, 1832 in Daresbury, Cheshire, England, Charles
Dodgson wrote and created games as a child. At age 20 he received a studentship
at Christ Church and was appointed a lecturer in mathematics. Dodgson was shy
but enjoyed creating stories for children. Within the academic discipline of
mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry, linear and
matrix algebra, mathematical logic, and recreational mathematics, producing
nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in
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linear algebra (e.g., the first printed proof of the Kronecker-Capelli theorem,)
probability, and the study of elections (e.g., Dodgson\'s method); some of this work
was not published until well after his death. His mathematical work attracted
renewed interest in the late 20th century. Martin Gardner\'s book on logic machines
and diagrams, and William Warren Bartley\'s posthumous publication of the second
part of Carroll\'s symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll\'s
contributions to symbolic logic,
RETRIEVED FROM: http://www.alice-inwonderland.net/resources/analysis/story-origins/
MATRIX ALGEBRA http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/matrix0/matrix0.html
ILLUSTRATIONS BY CHARLES DODGESON
More information on Charles Dodgson can be found here:
As mathematics was a life-long passion of Charles Dodgson, several of the lessons
in this companion explore mathematical concepts, including proportion, ratio, area
and perimeter. Lessons begin in story with a comparison between the novel that
began it all, \"The Adventures of Alice in Wonderland,\" and the Disney adaptation,
Disney’s Alice in Wonderland, Jr. This is followed by Art, Math and Set
Design: Alice in Minecraft Land. In this lesson, students explore the art of John
Tenniel, the original animators of Disney’s Studios (otherwise known as The Nine
Old Men) and develop their own Minecraft illustrations while learning about area,
perimeter and ratios. The following lesson, The Science of Color Meets the
White Rabbit and the March Hare, looks at the possible inspiration for Lewis
Carroll’s White Rabbit and March Hare, further explores Disney animator Ward
Kimbell and introduces the work of modern-day English artist Helen Ahpornsiri.
Students learn the scientific differences between rabbits and hares, the importance
of complementary colors and how these colors influence human physiology and
create their own complementary color illustrations comparing rabbits and hares.