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Troubleshooting in a practice situation requires two types of information, namely for reasoning about the problem-cause and for finding an adequate solution (declarative information), and for manipulating the environment (procedural information). The authors hypothesize that presenting this information piece-by-piece during practice (i.e., presentation of declarative and procedural information separately) frees up working memory and facilitates learning. Moreover, this effect is augmented when both information types are presented “just-in-time” (i.e., declarative information before practice and procedural information during practice). Eighty-five students (49 male, 36 female; M = 15.2 years, SD = .59) participated in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the factors timing of declarative information and timing of procedural information, both before or during practice. Transfer test scores and transfer efficiency scores support the first hypothesis; the second hypothesis was not supported.
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