Troubleshooting in a practice situation requires two types of information, namely for reasoning about the problem-cause and for finding an adequate solution (declarative information), and for manipulating the environment (procedural information). The authors hypothesize that presenting this information piece-by-piece during practice (i.e., presentation of declarative and procedural information separately) frees up working memory and facilitates learning. Moreover, this effect is augmented when both information types are presented “just-in-time” (i.e., declarative information before practice and procedural information during practice). Eighty-five students (49 male, 36 female; M = 15.2 years, SD = .59) participated in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the factors timing of declarative information and timing of procedural information, both before or during practice. Transfer test scores and transfer efficiency scores support the first hypothesis; the second hypothesis was not supported.


  • Education > General

Education Levels:

  • Grade 1
  • Grade 6
  • Grade 8
  • Grade 9


Vocational/Professional Development Education,Cognition,Higher Education,NSDL,working memory,cognitive loading,High School,NSDL_SetSpec_439869,Cognitive Load theory,Education Foundations,Life Science,procedural information,oai:nsdl.org:2200/20061121130418609T,Education,Graduate/Professional,declarative information



Access Privileges:

Public - Available to anyone

License Deed:

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike


This resource has not yet been aligned.
Curriki Rating
'NR' - This resource has not been rated
'NR' - This resource has not been rated

This resource has not yet been reviewed.

Not Rated Yet.

Non-profit Tax ID # 203478467