Lesson Plan


Lesson Plans about Minerals, Rocks and Soil. Specific lessons include Mineral Utilization, Mineral Deposits, and the Economic Value of Minerals.


  • Science > Earth Science
  • Science > General
  • Science > General Science
  • Science > Geology
  • Science > Physical Sciences
  • Social Studies > Economics
  • Social Studies > General

Education Levels:

  • Grade 3
  • Grade 4
  • Grade 5
  • Grade 6
  • Grade 7
  • Grade 8
  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12


collections minerals soil geology rocks earth land form crust economy deposit mining mine ore



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Update Standards?

SCI.5-6.S5-6:46.1: Science

Using data about a rock's physical characteristics to explain the rock's history and connection to the Rock Cycle.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:46.2: Science

Creating a model of the earth's structure and explaining the nature of the layers.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:46.a: Science

Rocks come from magma or lava, as well as from sediments that build up in layers. As all rocks from earth's surface weather, form sediments and become buried and heated (through pressure or direct heat), they may crystallize into new rock. Eventually those new rocks may be brought to the surface by forces that drive plate motions (The Rock Cycle).

SCI.5-6.S5-6:46.b: Science

The earth is layered with a rigid shell, a hot mantle and a dense metallic core.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.1: Science

Identifying examples of geologic changes on the earth's surface, where possible, in the local environment (include slow and fast changes).

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.2: Science

Plotting locations of volcanoes and earthquakes and using these data to explain the relationship between location and plate movement.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.3: Science

Explaining the processes that occur when rocks are changed from one form to another.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.4: Science

Determining the relative age of fossils within sedimentary rocks from their location in the strata (i.e. which fossils within a sequence are older).

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.a: Science

Some changes on the earth can be very slow, such as weathering and mountain-building, and some can be very fast-such as volcanoes and earthquakes.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.b: Science

Earth's rigid shell is composed of large plates that move at rates of centimeters a year. Major geologic events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, result from these plate motions.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:47.c: Science

Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock confirm the long history of the changing surface of the earth and the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers (land forms-coastlines, mountains, rivers, canyons, deltas).

SCI.5-6.S5-6:48.1: Science

Diagramming, labeling and explaining the process of the water cycle (e.g., evaporation, precipitation, run-off).

SCI.5-6.S5-6:48.a: Science

The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns. Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, and falls again to the surface as rain. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:49.1: Science

Identifying examples of good and poor management of natural resources.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:49.2: Science

Explaining how overpopulation of living things can degrade an environment due to increased use of resources.

SCI.5-6.S5-6:49.a: Science

Responsible management of the earth's resources (air, soil, water, trees) is beneficial for the environment and for human use.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:9.1: Science

Calculating the density of regularly and irregularly shaped objects.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:9.2: Science

Explaining why all three states of matter can be observed in a room that has a uniform temperature.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:9.a: Science

The density of a substance can be measured and quantified as the mass (amount of a substance) that is contained per unit volume of that substance.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:9.b: Science

Changing the temperature of materials will change the density of the material.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:9.c: Science

All substances have a unique temperature at which a change in phase (state of matter) occurs. Boiling point and freezing or melting point refers to these unique phase change temperatures.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.1: Science

Illustrating through words or representations the differences between atoms and molecules.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.2: Science

Recognizing that all living and non-living things are formed from combinations of about 100 elements.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.a: Science

All matter is made up of atoms that are too small to see.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.b: Science

Atoms bond together to form molecules.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.c: Science

An element is a substance in which the atoms are all the same.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:10.d: Science

All living and non-living things are formed from combinations of about 100 elements.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:12.1: Science

Modeling (plays, models, diagrams) molecular motion of the three states of matter and explaining how that motion defines each state.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:12.a: Science

Atoms and molecules are in perpetual motion.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:12.b: Science

The atoms in solids vibrate closely together.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:12.c: Science

The atoms in liquids loosely slide past one another.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:12.d: Science

The atoms in gases move freely apart from one another, and collide with one another.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:13.1: Science

Using real world examples (tires, balloons, soda), predict and explain the effect that a change in one variable (pressure, temperature or volume) will have on the others.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:13.a: Science

There exists a predictable relationship among the volume, temperature, and amount of a gas and the pressure the gas exerts.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:13.b: Science

For any specified amount of a gas, the pressure that the gas exerts will increase as the temperature increases or the volume of the gas decreases. The pressure that the gas exerts will decrease as the temperature decreases or the volume of the gas increases.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:13.c: Science

Gases exert pressure in all directions.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:14.1: Science

Constructing their own models that represent the states of matter at the molecular level and explaining the effect of increased and decreased heat energy on the motion and arrangement of molecules.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:14.2: Science

Observing the physical processes of evaporation and condensation, and accounting for the disappearance and appearance of liquid water in terms of molecular motion and conservation of mass.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:14.a: Science

Increased temperature of substances causes increased motion of the atoms and molecules in the substance.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:14.b: Science

As the temperature and motion of molecules in a substance increase, the space between molecules in the substance increases possibly causing a change in state.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:15.1: Science

Observing evidence of chemical change and offering qualitative explanations for the observed changes in substances in terms of interaction and rearrangement of the atoms, and the production of new substances with different characteristics, but the same mass as the original substance.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:15.a: Science

Chemical change is a transformation of matter that results from the interaction of the molecules in a substance and a new substance results (e.g., electrolysis of water). Chemical change is not reversible.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:15.b: Science

During chemical change, the atoms in the substances are rearranged and because the mass of the product of a chemical reaction is the same as the mass of the reactants in that reaction, we know the total number of atoms in the substances stays the same (Conservation of Mass).

SCI.7-8.S7-8:19.1: Science

Designing investigations that illustrate the effect of a change in mass or velocity on an object's momentum.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:19.2: Science

Describing and explaining how the acceleration of an object is proportional to the force on the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:19.a: Science

Velocity indicates the speed and the direction of a moving object.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:19.b: Science

Momentum is the characteristic of an object in motion that depends on the object's mass and velocity. Momentum provides the ability for a moving object to stay in motion without an additional force.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:19.c: Science

Acceleration is a relationship between the force applied to a moving object and the mass of the object (Newton's Second Law).

SCI.7-8.S7-8:21.1: Science

Diagramming or describing, after observing a moving object, the forces acting on the object before and after it is put into motion (Students include in their diagram or description, the effect of these forces on the motion of the object.)

SCI.7-8.S7-8:21.a: Science

An object that is not subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:21.b: Science

If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another,depending on their direction and magnitude.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:21.c: Science

Unbalanced forces will cause changes in speed or direction of an object's motion.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:22.1: Science

Describing and explaining the effects of gravitational force on objects in the Solar System, and identifying evidence that the force of gravity is relative to the mass of objects and their distance apart.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:22.a: Science

The force of gravity depends on the amount of mass objects have and how far apart they may be.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:22.b: Science

The force of gravity is hard to detect unless at least one of the objects has considerable mass.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.1: Science

Creating a diagram, model, or analogy for a material in a warm and cool state, showing or describing the motion of the molecules.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.2: Science

Creating a diagram, model, or analogy to explain differences among conduction, convection, and radiation, and using their visual to explain how heat energy travels in different directions and through different materials by each method of energy transfer.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.a: Science

Heat energy is the motion of molecules.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.b: Science

Temperature is a measure of the rate of motion of the molecules in a substance.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.c: Science

Increased temperature causes increased motion of molecules and increases the heat energy of they system.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:23.d: Science

Heat energy is transferred by: Conduction-Collision of molecules in solids. Convection-Organized flow of heat currents through a fluid. Radiation-Transfer by waves that can travel through a vacuum.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:24.1: Science

Building an electric circuit and explaining the transfer of electrical energy into heat, light, and sound, leaving the system, but not destroyed.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:24.2: Science

Predicting the effect of a change in voltage in the circuit system.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:24.a: Science

Electric circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, and sound are produced. The electrical energy is spread out yet still conserved.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:24.b: Science

Electric charges can have "potential" energy (voltage). The higher the potential energy of the charges, the higher the voltage.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:28.1: Science

Designing demonstrations that represent the characteristics of light energy transfer.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:28.2: Science

Explaining that visible light is made up of colored light waves.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:28.a: Science

Light is a form of radiant energy.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:28.b: Science

Transmitted light can be refracted (change in direction of the light) when it passes from one medium into another.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:28.c: Science

Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Visible (white) light is made up of colored light waves of the visible spectrum.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.1: Science

Diagramming, labeling and explaining the process of the water cycle (precipitation, evaporation, condensation, runoff, ground water, transpiration).

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.2: Science

Identifying the major gases of earth's atmosphere.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.3: Science

Explaining how differential heating can affect the earth's weather patterns.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.4: Science

Creating a model showing the tilt of the earth on its axis and explaining how the sun's energy hitting the earth surface creates the seasons.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.a: Science

The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns. Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow, and falls again to the surface. Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.b: Science

The entire planet is surrounded by a relatively thin blanket of air composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and small amounts of other gases, including water vapor.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.c: Science

Heat from the sun is the primary source of energy for changes on the earth's surface. The differences in heating of the earth's surface produce the planet's weather patterns.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:48.d: Science

Seasons result from variations in the amount of sun's energy hitting the earth's surface. This happens because of the tilt of the earth's axis and the orbit of the earth around the sun.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:49.1: Science

Investigating natural resources in the community and monitoring/managing them for responsible use.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:49.2: Science

Identifying a human activity in a local environment and determining the impact of that activity on a specific (local) natural resource.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:49.3: Science

Researching the impact of different human activities on the earth's land, waterways and atmosphere, and describing possible effects on the living organisms in those environments.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:49.a: Science

Human activities have impacts on natural resources, such as increasing wildlife habitats, reducing/managing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere and farming intensively. Some of these changes have decreased the capacity of the environment to support life forms. Others have enhanced the environment to support greater availability of resources.

SCI.7-8.S7-8:49.b: Science

Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and also for most industrial processes. Rivers, lakes, and groundwater can be depleted or polluted, becoming unavailable or unsuitable for life.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:9.1: Science

Distinguishing one substance from another through examination of physical properties (such as density, melting point, conductivity), chemical properties (such as pH, reactivity-with O2 or acid or water), and nuclear properties (such as changes in atomic mass, isotopes and half-life).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:9.a: Science

Substances (elements, compounds) differ from one another based on their physical, chemical and nuclear properties.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.1: Science

Citing evidence of the change in our understanding of the atom and the development of atomic theory

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.2: Science

Comparing the characteristics of three major components of all atoms (protons, electrons, neutrons) their location within an atom, their relative size and their charge.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.3: Science

Writing formulae for compounds and Developing models using electron structure (e.g., Lewis dot).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.a: Science

Atoms have a dense nucleus containing positively charged protons and neutral neutrons. The number of protons in the nucleus determines the identity of an element.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.b: Science

The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by much lighter negatively-charged electrons in.mostly empty space.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.c: Science

In neutral atoms the number of protons and electrons is equal.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:10.d: Science

The arrangement of electrons of an atom determines what kinds of bonds are formed to produce molecules (compounds).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:11.1: Science

Identifying and explaining the basis for the arrangement of elements within the Periodic Table (e.g., trends, valence, reactivity, electronegativity, ionization).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:11.2: Science

Determining valence electrons of selected elements.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:11.3: Science

Predicting the relative physical and chemical properties of an element based on its location within the Periodic Table

SCI.9-12.S9-12:11.a: Science

Elements (substances composed of a single type of atom) are arranged in repeating patterns within the Periodic Table.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:11.b: Science

The arrangement of electrons of an atom determines placement in the Periodic Table.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:12.1: Science

Investigating and explaining the interactions between atoms or molecules within a system (e.g., hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, fluorescent light, stars).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:13.1: Science

Determining the pressure of a given volume of gas when the temperature changes incrementally (doubles, triples, etc.).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:13.a: Science

There are specific proportional relationships that exist among volume, pressure, temperature and amount of gas (mass) in a system.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:14.1: Science

Experimenting, graphing, and explaining the effect of heat energy on the phase changes of water from a solid state to a liquid state to a gaseous state, comparing that data to other substances, and using evidence to draw conclusions based upon these data.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:14.a: Science

Different compounds require different amounts of energy for phase change due to their unique molecular structure.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:15.1: Science

Writing simple balanced chemical equations to represent chemical reactions and illustrate the conservation of matter (atoms).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:15.2: Science

Qualitatively predicting reactants and products in a prescribed investigation (e.g. oxidation, reduction, acid/base reactions).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:15.a: Science

The total mass of reactants of any chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of the products of that chemical reaction (Conservation of Mass).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:15.b: Science

Bonds between atoms are created when electrons are paired by being transferred or shared. Many important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules or atoms.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:16.1: Science

Performing an experiment and using evidence to explain how the increase or decrease in temperature of the substances in a chemical reaction causes a transfer of heat energy from that reaction. (e.g., exothermic and endothermic reactions).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:16.a: Science

During a chemical change, energy is absorbed or released (e.g., AMP, ADP, ATP or burning wood).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.1: Science

Explaining the organization of an atomic nucleus and identifying the universal forces from strongest to weakest.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.2: Science

Explaining how alpha and beta emissions create changes in the nucleus of an atom, resulting in a completely different element.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.3: Science

Distinguishing between the reactants and products of a chemical reaction and those of a nuclear decay reaction and comparing the relative energies produced by each.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.a: Science

The number of neutrons in the nucleus can vary and gives rise to different isotopes of an element.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.b: Science

Certain nuclear configurations lead to radioactive decay, producing alpha and beta particles, and ultimately a different element.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:17.c: Science

Nuclear forces, which exist only within the nucleus of an atom, are the forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together and are much stronger than either gravitational or electrical forces.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:18.1: Science

Explaining the concept of half-life and using the half-life principle to predict the approximate age of a material.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:18.a: Science

Radioactive decay occurs at a predictable rate (half-life) which allows radioactivity to be used for estimating the age of materials that contain radioactive substances.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.1: Science

Predicting the path of an object in different reference planes and explaining how and why this occurs.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.2: Science

Using modeling and illustrating, to explain how distance and velocity change over time for a free falling object.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.3: Science

Modeling, illustrating, and explaining the path of an object which has horizontal and free fall motion (i.e., football, bullet).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.a: Science

Motion is relative. The motion of an object is observed and measured relative to a given frame of reference (point of view) (e.g. trees flashing by when sitting in a moving vehicle).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.b: Science

Acceleration occurs when an object undergoes a change in velocity over time (speed up, slow down, change direction).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.c: Science

Motion is predictable; a falling object increases speed in a predictable pattern as it falls.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:19.d: Science

Motion is predictable; projectile motion combines a uniform horizontal motion and free-fall motion simultaneously

SCI.9-12.S9-12:20.1: Science

Explaining how inertia affects the outcome in each of a series of situations (i.e., kicking a sand-filled football, moving a bowl of soup quickly across the table).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:20.a: Science

An object at rest or moving uniformly (in a straight line) will remain so unless acted upon by an external unbalanced (net) force (Newton's First Law, The Law of Inertia). (e.g., We wear seatbelts because our body has a tendency to keep moving when the vehicle stops.)

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.1: Science

Investigating (predict, model, illustrate, explain) whether the acceleration is greater or less as either the mass of the system or the force accelerating the mass is changed and using data to support your conclusion (e.g., cart with variable weights on horizontal table attached to a string with weights).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.2: Science

Demonstrating action force/reaction force in one of three different ways--describing in words, demonstrating physically, and modeling the occurrence of opposing actions.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.3: Science

Investigating quantitatively the acceleration as either the mass of the system or the force accelerating the mass is changed (e.g., cart with variable weights on horizontal table attached to a string with weights.)

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.a: Science

Every body continues in its state of rest or in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it (Newton's First Law).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.b: Science

If an unbalanced force acts on an object it will accelerate; the acceleration is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object (Newton's Second Law F=ma). (e.g. A vehicle accelerates more slowly when it's full of passengers.)

SCI.9-12.S9-12:21.c: Science

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction is exerted on the first object. Forces always arise in pairs (Newton's Third Law). (e.g., When you lean against a wall, the wall pushes back at you.)

SCI.9-12.S9-12:22.1: Science

Predicting in a variety of situations how gravitational force changes when mass changes or when distance changes.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:22.a: Science

The force of gravity is a universal force of attraction between ANY two objects and is proportional to the masses of those two objects and weakens rapidly with the distance between the objects (e.g., More mass produces more force; less distance produces more force, such as bodies in the solar system).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:23.1: Science

Comparing and contrasting characteristics of the different forms of energy, particularly within chemical reactions.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:23.2: Science

Explaining the changes in energy (transformation) that occur in different reactions (e.g., chemical, biological, physical) through analysis of the input and output energies in the system (e.g., calorimetry, entropy) and using evidence to justify the explanation.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:23.a: Science

Different energy levels are associated with different configurations within atoms and molecules (firework explosions).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:23.b: Science

The total energy in an isolated system remains constant regardless of transformation. (Whenever the amount of energy in one place or form diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by an equivalent amount.)

SCI.9-12.S9-12:23.c: Science

Whenever energy is transformed from one form to another, some energy becomes less available and is transformed into heat energy, such as from engines, electrical wires, hot-water tanks, our bodies, and stereo systems (entropy).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:24.1: Science

Explaining (through words, diagrams, models or electrostatic demonstrations) the principle that like charges repel and unlike charges attract (e.g. electromagnetic forces).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:24.2: Science

Explaining (through words, charts, diagrams, models or mathematical examples) the effects of distance and the amount of charge on the strength of the electrical force present.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:24.a: Science

Electrical force is a universal force that arises from charge and can be attractive (between different charges) or repulsive (between similar charges).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:24.b: Science

The strength of the electrical force is proportional to the amount of charge and weakens rapidly with distance between the charges.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:24.c: Science

Mechanical forces such as tension, compression, and friction are manifestations of electrostatic forces between atoms and molecules.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:26.1: Science

Comparing and contrasting the wave nature of electromagnetic energy to other forms of waves (water, sound, etc.).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:26.2: Science

Relating the particle nature of electromagnetic waves to their frequencies and to discrete changes in energy levels within atoms (e.g. red shift, blue shift, line spectra).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:26.a: Science

Electromagnetic energy has both wave and particle properties.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:27.1: Science

Describing (through words, models, or diagrams) the presence of electromagnetic forces in an atom.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:27.2: Science

Comparing and contrasting the electromagnetic and gravitational forces between the particles that make up an atom.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:27.3: Science

Explaining in words, models or diagrams how electric currents produce magnetic fields and how moving fields and moving magnets produce electric currents.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:27.a: Science

An electromagnetic force is a universal force that acts within and between atoms and is vastly stronger than the gravitational forces between atoms (strength depends upon how much charge is present).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:27.b: Science

Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of an electromagnetic force. Moving electrical charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electrical forces.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:28.1: Science

Investigating examples of wave phenomena (e.g., ripples in water, sound waves, seismic waves).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:28.2: Science

Comparing and contrasting electromagnetic waves to mechanical waves.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:28.a: Science

An electromagnetic force is a universal force that acts within and between atoms and is vastly stronger than the gravitational forces between atoms (strength depends upon how much charge is present).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:28.b: Science

Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of an electromagnetic force. Moving electrical charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electrical forces.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:44.1: Science

Explaining how our understanding of the nature and composition of the atmosphere of inner and outer planets has been advanced through the use of sophisticated technology.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:44.2: Science

Explaining the effect of distance from the sun on the nature of the planets (e.g., inner vs. outer planets).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:44.a: Science

Our solar system developed from a giant cloud of gas and debris of exploding stars 4.6 billion years ago, and everything on earth, including organisms, is made of this material.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:44.b: Science

As the earth and other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets close to the sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) the lightest elements were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun; on the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto) the lighter elements still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.1: Science

Explaining the process of star formation (i.e. our sun) in relation to its size, including the interaction of the force of gravity, fusion and energy release.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.2: Science

Explaining the process of the Big Bang Theory and its effect on the Universe today, citing evidence to support its occurrence (e.g., Doppler effect/red shift).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.3: Science

Explaining how technology through time has influenced our understanding of the vastness (i.e., light years) and the nature of the universe (e.g., Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Einstein).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.a: Science

Stars formed by gravitational clumping of hydrogen and helium out of clouds of molecules of these lightest elements until nuclear fusion of these light elements into heavier ones began to occur, releasing great amounts of energy over millions of years and resulting in the initial formation of elements. The process of star formation continues today, as some stars explode, creating new clouds from which other stars from and eventually dissipate with changes in matter and energy Stars differ in size, temperature and age, but appear to be made of the same elements found on earth and behave according to the same physical principles.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.b: Science

The Universe expanded explosively into being perhaps between 10 and 20 billion years ago from a hot, dense, chaotic mass.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.c: Science

The nature of electromagnetic waves (radio waves- the longest, to gamma rays, the shortest) has provided a useful tool to determine the movement of objects in the Universe. Because light from almost all distant galaxies has longer wavelengths that comparable light here on earth, astronomers believe the whole Universe is continuing to expand. Mathematical models are used to study evidence from many sources to explain events in the Universe. A variety of increasingly sophisticated technology is used to learn about the Universe (e.g., visual telescopes, radio telescopes, X-ray telescopes, computers, space probes, atomic accelerators.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:45.d: Science

Scientific theories on the nature of the Universe have evolved significantly through the past 2000+ years Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo), and new views are emerging.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.1: Science

Citing and explaining evidence that illustrates how despite changes in form, conservation in the amount of earth materials occurs during the Rock Cycle.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.2: Science

Explaining how the heat (energy) produced by radioactive decay and pressure affects the Rock Cycle.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.3: Science

Explaining the processes by which elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, oxygen atoms) move through the earth's reservoirs (soil, atmosphere, bodies of water, organisms).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.a: Science

The formation, weathering, sedimentation and reformation of rock constitutes a continuing "rock cycle" in which the total amount of material remains the same, while its form changes (e.g., Conservation of Mass).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.b: Science

The earth's systems have internal sources of energy (heat), such as radioactive decay and pressure which create heat.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:46.c: Science

The earth is a system containing essentially a fixed amount of each stable chemical atom or element. Movement of this matter between reservoirs, driven by the earth's internal and external sources of energy, is often accomplished by a change in the physical and chemical properties of the matter in the solid earth, atmosphere, and organisms.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.1: Science

Using a model, diagram or computer simulation to demonstrate how convection circulation of the mantle initiates the movement of crustal plates which then causes earthquake and volcanic activity (e.g. Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North American and European plate collisions producing the Green Mountains).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.2: Science

Analyzing samples of rock sequences to determine the relative age of the rock structure.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.3: Science

Comparing the usefulness of various methods of determining the age of different rock structures (e.g. relative dating vs. C-dating vs. K-Ar dating. If rock structure is less than 500,000 years old, K-Ar dating cannot be used and C-dating can only be used for tens of thousands of years).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.a: Science

The convection circulation of the earth's mantle slowly moves the solid crustal sections of the earth's continents and ocean basins over the denser, hot layers beneath-separating in some areas and pressing against one another in other areas resulting in plate collisions- mountain building-volcanic activity-islands.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.b: Science

Interactions among solid earth, atmosphere, oceans and organisms have resulted in ongoing change of earth's systems (e.g., effects of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and glacial activity).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:47.c: Science

The age and changes of the earth and its inhabitants can be extrapolated from rock sequences and fossils in the earth's sediments and land forms and also through the decay rates of radioactive isotopes, indicating a long history (Lyell's Principles of Geology, fossil records, Charles Darwin).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.1: Science

Explaining the uniqueness of the earth's characteristics (e.g., solar intensity, gravity related to size of earth, makeup of atmosphere).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.2: Science

Explaining how water as a molecule is also unique in its ability to retain heat, compared to land and air on earth.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.3: Science

Diagramming and explaining local and large scale wind systems (e.g., land and sea breezes and global wind patterns, Coriolis effect).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.4: Science

Predicting weather for a particular location, using weather map data (barometric pressure, frontal systems, isobars, isotherms, mountain effects, lake/ocean effects, ocean currents, temperature/humidity) and examining world weather maps and identifying the most likely locations where extreme weather might occur (e.g., blizzards thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.a: Science

Of all the diverse planets and moons in the solar system, earth's unique physical/chemical characteristics, its position, its atmosphere and its intensity of solar radiation that allows for the existence of liquid water. Water is a unique molecule generating unique properties that influence the earth's weather (ability to retain heat, melting, boiling, and freezing points). The intensity of radiation from the sun allows water to cycle between liquid and vapor, which supports life as we know it on earth.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.b: Science

The earth's climatic patterns and weather are governed by the transfer of heat energy between atmosphere and land and oceans. Heat transfer at boundaries of atmosphere and oceans causes the circulation of wind and ocean currents, which influence the composition (temperature and moisture content) and the movement of large air masses).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:48.c: Science

The meeting of air masses with different characteristics causes our most.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.1: Science

Comparing the availability of natural resources and the impact of different management plans (e.g., management of forests depends upon use, lumber production, sugarbush, deer habitat, mining, recreation) within the management area (forest, farmland, rivers, streams).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.2: Science

Choosing a Vermont ecosystem and tracing its succession before and after a damaging event, showing how the ecosystem has been restored through the maintenance of atmosphere quality, generation of soils, control of the water cycle, disposal of wastes and recycling of nutrients (e.g., flooding, former mining sites, glacial impact, deforestation, recovery of rivers from sewage/ chemical dumping, burning of fossil fuels).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.3: Science

Explaining a natural chemical cycle that has been disrupted by human activity and predict what the long term effect will be on organisms (e.g., acid precipitation, global warming, ozone depletion, pollution of water by phosphates, mercury, PCBs,etc.).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.4: Science

Tracing the processes that are necessary to produce a common, everyday object from the original raw materials to its final destination after human use, considering alternate routes-including extraction of raw material, production and transportation, energy use and waste disposal throughout, packaging and recycling and/or disposal (e.g., aluminum can, steel).

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.a: Science

Human activities can enhance potential for accelerating rates of natural change.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.b: Science

Natural ecosystems provide many basic processes that affect humans- maintenance of atmospheric quality, generation of soils, control of the water cycle, disposal of wastes and recycling of nutrients, etc.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.c: Science

Materials and habits from human societies affect both physical and chemical cycles on earth, and human alteration of these cycles can be detrimental to all organisms.

SCI.9-12.S9-12:49.d: Science

Natural ecosystems provide the raw materials for the development of many products for human use (e.g. steel, glass, fertilizers).
Curriki Rating
On a scale of 0 to 3
On a scale of 0 to 3

This resource was reviewed using the Curriki Review rubric and received an overall Curriki Review System rating of 3, as of 2016-08-02.

Component Ratings:

Standards Alignment: 3
Subject Matter: 3
Support Steaching: 3
Assessments Quality: 3
Deeper Learning: 3

Not Rated Yet.

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