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Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Identification of targeting sequences needed for secretion of the virulence proteins encoded by mycobacteria has potential applications for the design of live, attenuated vaccines. Recently, a new protein secretion pathway, ESX-1 (ESAT-6 system-1) or Snm (secretion in mycobacteria), was discovered in M. tuberculosis , and is present in many other Gram-positive bacteria . This discovery has challenged our knowledge of the organism and more generally of protein secretion in prokaryotes. In this Perspective,Ize and Palmer discuss DiGiuseppe Champion et al. study of identifying the first targeting signal that promotes protein secretion by this pathway.
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