November 11, 2016

This resource for middle school provides 13 complete lessons for teaching about hydropower and conversion of moving water to electrical energy. The unit crosses the curriculum to include physical science, engineering design, earth systems, language arts, social studies and math. As with all NEED educational materials, this resource includes every component required for immediate classroom use: lesson plans, illustrated lab procedures, rubric, pre and post-test assessments, age-appropriate background information, worksheets, graphics for classroom projection, and student guidebooks. Specific physical science objectives revolve around energy flow in systems and the concept that energy is never destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another. Each investigation requires students to first read about the topic in "infobooks" (included in the materials), then make predictions, complete the lab, record data, and write a conclusion. The NEED Project is a national initiative to bring innovative curriculum materials in energy education to K-12 teachers and learners.

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Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6—8 texts and topics.

Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).

Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6—8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Use appropriate tools strategically.

Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.

Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ? 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship.

Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.

Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.