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Physiology in Medicine review article Genetic and translational studies, as well as clinical trials, suggest that in a subgroup of patients, the pathobiology of severe asthma is mediated by immune pathways driven by T-helper 2 (Th2)Âtype CD4?? T cells, which produce a characteristic repertoire of interleukins (ILs), including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13.The benefits of immune-modifier therapies targeting Th2-type cytokines, however, need to be weighed against the toxicities associated with inhibition of key biological pathways, as well as the expense of future medications. Therefore, future clinical trials need to clearly establish the efficacy and safety of biological modifiers of Th2 immune pathways before these approaches can enter routine clinical practice for the treatment of severe asthma.
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