This article about plant growth beneath sea ice by Anne-Maree Shwarz appears in Water and Atmosphere online, a quarterly publication of the New Zealand-based National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Shwarz's "article describes some of the linkages between ice-cover, underwater light and primary production that have been investigated" by ICECUBE, a NIWA research program working to "determine relationships between sea ice and the composition and functioning of benthic communities." Amazingly, as this article describes in greater detail, enough nutrients and light are available under the sea-ice to allow "the growth of high concentrations of micro-algae." This webpage also links to other Water and Atmosphere online articles which include topics such as Ministry of Fisheries Antarctic research and Assessing biodiversity on the Antarctic sea floor. For New Zealand educators this webpage links to Teacher Resources: Curriculum Connections, a page that "relates articles in recent issues of Water and Atmosphere online to the NZ Curriculum and the NCES Achievement Standards."


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