Since the concept of permaculture was introduced by biogeographer Bill Mollison in the 1970s, it has attracted increasing interest from agriculturalists, designers, ecologists, and others. The Permaculture Research Institute (PRI) describes permaculture as "the harmonious integration of landscape and people providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way. It is also the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability and resilience of natural ecosystems." In addition to this definition of permaculture, the PRI website (1) contains a collection of related articles, a Discussion Forum, an annotated Photo Gallery, and brief descriptions of several recommended books. For those looking for more basic information about permaculture, the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA) offers an online (2) Introduction to Permaculture. As implied by its title, this ATTRA website provides brief, introductory information about permaculture, as well as a great selection of links to related resources. The Permaculture.Net website (3) offers several services to those interested in learning more about permaculture including a Courses & Internships Database, a Resource List of related websites, information about the American Permaculture Directory, and an assortment of permaculture definitions "from experts in the field." The next website (4), from _Permaculture Magazine_ offers a selection of gratis online articles. For those looking to engage in some online permaculture-related conversations, the La'akea Permaculture Gardens website (5) hosts a Permaculture Forum. The final two websites, from Organic Volunteers (6) and Permaculture International Limited (PRI) (7), provide information about permaculture-practicing farms and other organizations that offer a variety of hands-on opportunities to learn about permaculture.


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  • Science > Agriculture
  • Science > Ecology

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