Interactive, Other


By the end of this exercise, you should be able to identify the various lignified cell types in cross sections of stem. You should know how to tell a moss from a fern; a gametophyte from a sporophyte. You should understand which cells are haploid and which diploid, and whether they are formed by mitosis, meiosis, or fertilization. You should be able to apply this information to the reproductive cycle in gymnosperms such as pine. The objectives of this lab are as follows: 1. To look at cellular specialization in plants, with emphasis on lignified cells that function in water transport and/or support. 2. To study the evolution of these vegetative structures in representative plants: a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm, and both a woody and a nonwoody angiosperm. 3. To examine the evolution of sexual cycles in a moss, a typical fern, and a gymnosperm. This resource is part of the Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology.


  • Science > General
  • Science > Biology

Education Levels:

  • Grade 6
  • Grade 7
  • Grade 8
  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12


student-facing plant diversity haploid diploid moss fern gametophyte sporophyte gymnosperms angiosperm woody lignified cell pine mitosis meiosis fertilization



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Public - Available to anyone

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Update Standards?

SCI.7.11.A: Science

examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification;

SCI.9-11.5.B: Science

examine specialized cells, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants; and animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium;
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