This is a quicktime presentation of a semiconductor laser diode. Laser diodes come in a compact transistor-like package with two or more electrical leads. Inside the package is the tiny semiconductor chip, containing the laser cavity. The chip contains a stack of epitaxial layers with different doping and compositions that provide optical and electrical confinement. Flatband Diagram Energy band diagrams provide an insight into the flow of electrons and holes in a semiconductor laser diode and the recombination of those carriers resulting in the emission of photons. The flatband diagram is directly related to the aluminum fraction. Energy band diagrams are presented at several bias voltages. The recombination of electrons and holes in the quantum well and the emission of photons from the quantum well are visualized as well. Lasing occurs when stimulated emission causes the amplification of photons confined to the lasing mode. Photons propagating along the waveguide mode bounce back and forth between the front and back mirror. A diverging beam emerges from the laser diode package.


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