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GFR falls with aging in humans and rats due to renal vasoconstriction and structural damage. The rate of deterioration is influenced by race/genetic background, environment, and sex, with females protected. Part of the female advantage relates to protective effects of estrogens. There is little information on impact of aging on the distribution/cardiovascular actions of the estrogen receptor subtypes. In rats, androgens may contribute to injury, but in men, high testosterone levels predict cardiovascular health. In women, the association is controversial. Nitric oxide deficiency contributes to the hypertension and renal dysfunction of aging, which may be delayed in the female.
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