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#### Description:

This lesson is designed to introduce students to modular arithmetic and how it is used in cryptography to encrypt messages. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to modular arithmetic and cryptography as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

#### Subjects:

• Mathematics > General

#### Keywords:

Grade 3,NSDL,Upper Elementary,Grade 4,NSDL_SetSpec_ncs-NSDL-COLLECTION-000-003-112-016,Elementary School,oai:nsdl.org:2200/20120614151510510T,Mathematics,Vocational/Professional Development Education

English

#### Access Privileges:

Public - Available to anyone

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike

#### Collections:

None
Update Standards?

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.2: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each.

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.3: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.2: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.6: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.2: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

#### CCSS.Math.Content.HSA-CED.A.1: Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.
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