ERYTHROPOIETIN (Epo) may have effects on exercise capacity and physiological regulation beyond a simple increase in red cell mass and the associated improvement in oxygen transport (4). In the context of a larger study on this topic, Lundby and colleagues (11) also asked questions about the reliability of urine testing for recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). They studied eight healthy male subjects during a 4-wk "loading" and 2-wk "boosting" phase of Epo use followed by a 2-wk maintenance phase. In the parent study they showed that the effects of Epo on exercise performance were confined to its impact on red cell mass and not to other physiological effects of the hormone. These results were consistent with ideas about the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and red cell mass or total body hemoglobin that emerged in the 1950s. The findings are timely and have implications for public policy relating to the control of doping practices. In this short report a number of challenges related to urine testing for Epo are highlighted.


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