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Considering the biological abundance and importance of Mg2+, there is a surprising lack of information regarding the proteins that transport Mg2+, the mechanisms by which they do so, and their physiological roles within the cell. The best characterized Mg2+ channel to date is the bacterial protein CorA, present in a wide range of bacterial species. The CorA homolog Mrs2 forms the mitochondrial Mg2+ channel in all eukaryotes. Physiologically, CorA is involved in bacterial pathogenesis, and the Mrs2 eukaryotic homolog is essential for cell survival. A second Mg2+ channel widespread in bacteria is MgtE. Its eukaryotic homologs are the SLC41 family of carriers. Physiological roles for MgtE and its homologs have not been established. Recently, the crystal structures for the bacterial CorA and MgtE Mg2+ channels were solved, the first structures of any divalent cation channel. As befits the unique biological chemistry of Mg2+, both structures are unique, unlike that of any other channel or transporter. Although structurally quite different, both CorA and MgtE appear to be gated in a similar manner through multiple Mg2+ binding sites in the cytosolic domain of the channels. These sites essentially serve as Mg2+ "sensors" of cytosolic Mg2+ concentration. Many questions about these channels remain, however, including the molecular basis of Mg2+ selectivity and the physiological role(s) of their eukaryotic homologs.
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