This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This publication focuses on the evolution of the heliocentric theory of the universe. Resources provided here will facilitate understanding of the early concepts of the universe; the thinking that led to hypotheses in astronomy; the observations and experiments that yielded information allowing for theorizing; reaction to and acceptance of the investigators' findings; and the impacts of the theory on humanity.


    Education Levels:

    • Grade 1
    • Grade 2
    • Grade 3
    • Grade 4
    • Grade 5
    • Grade 6
    • Grade 7
    • Grade 8
    • Grade 9
    • Grade 10
    • Grade 11
    • Grade 12


    Grade 6,NSDL,Sun,Grade 8,Earth's rotation,Space Science,Social Sciences,Grade 7,Earth's revolution,NSDL_SetSpec_1007936,History and nature of science,Fields of science,Scientists and inventors,Middle School,Earth and space science,Scientific breakthroughs,Scientific enterprises,History/Policy/Law,oai:nsdl.org:2200/20120114184909861T,Historical perspectives,Earth in the solar system,Solar system,Vocational/Professional Development Education,Technology,Geoscience



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