This folder contains resources about chemical thermodynamics.

This unit is part of the Chemistry collection, an open source California digital textbook plus supplementary resources.


  • Science > Chemistry
  • Science > General

Education Levels:

  • Grade 9
  • Grade 10
  • Grade 11
  • Grade 12




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Public - Available to anyone

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Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
Update Standards?

HS-PS1-4: Next Generation Science Standards

Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

HS-PS3-2: Next Generation Science Standards

Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields.

SCI.9-12.CH.7.a: Science

Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

SCI.9-12.CH.7.b: Science

Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

SCI.9-12.CH.7.c: Science

Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

SCI.9-12.CH.7.d: Science

Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

SCI.9-12.CH.7.e: Science

Students know how to apply Hess's law to calculate enthalpy change in a reaction.

SCI.9-12.CH.7.f: Science

Students know how to use the Gibbs free energy equation to determine whether a reaction would be spontaneous.

SCI.10-12.11.C: Science

use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;

SCI.10-12.11.D: Science

perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat; and

SCI.10-12.11.E: Science

use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.
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