Explains how waterfalls form


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      NSDL_SetSpec_ncs-NSDL-COLLECTION-000-003-111-985,How do waterfalls form?; Waterfalls commonly form where water rushes down steep hillsides and quickly erodes the rocks; The height and number of waterfalls along a stream or river depends upon the type of rocks that are being eroded by the water; Some types of rocks (shale, for example) wear away more easily than others (such as sandstone or limestone); As the river or stream wears away the weak rocks they travel across the surface of stronger rocks; These more resistant rocks become the capstones to waterfalls; The number and thickness of these stronger rock units in a vertical sequence of rocks controls how many water falls there are and how much vertical drop there is on each waterfall; Taughannock Falls; highest single-drop waterfall (70.5 meters, or 215 feet) in the northeastern United States; The creek that flows over Taughannock Falls has to drop many hundreds of feet to reach the water level of Cayuga Lake, which it empties into; There is a thick layer of weak shale rocks between the strong sandstones at the top and the stronger limestones; The water easily wore away the shale and left one big drop between the capstones,NSDL,oai:nsdl.org:2200/20120110191039324T



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