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In this 21-page article, Oregon State University researchers William J. Ripple and Robert L. Beschta summarize "the status of wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervis elaphus), and woody browse conditions during the 20th century for the upper Gallatin elk winter range in southwestern Montana, USA." The article appeared in _Forest Ecology and Management_ in 2004, and this pdf version is electronically archived by Sinapu, an organization "dedicated to the restoration and protection of native carnivores and their wild habitat in the Southern Rockies, and connected high plains and deserts." The article includes sections regarding the Study Area, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The Results section addresses Long-term Conditions and Trends for Wolves, Elk, Vegetation, and Climate. The article also includes a Discussion segment with subsections for three distinct periods: Pre-1925, Wolves Present; 1925-1995, Wolves Extirpated; and Post-1995, Wolves Reintroduced.
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